Term used to distinguish Parmesan-type cheese made between September and November.
Sheep, eaten both fresh and ripened.
Quargel see Olmützer.
Soft, cow's milk.
Queijos—Cheeses of the Azores, Brazil and Portugal see under their local or regional names: Alemtejo, Azeitão, Cardiga, Ilha, Prato and Serra da Estrella.
White, dry, skim milk.
Queso de Bola
Whole milk, similar to Edam.
Queso de Cavallo
Quesos Cheeses: Blanco, Cartera and Palma Metida see Venezuela.
Queso de Cincho
Hard, round orange balls weighing four pounds and wrapped in palm leaves.
Queso de Crema
Similar to soft Brick.
Queso de Hoja, Leaf Cheese
Named from its appearance when cut, like leaves piled on top of each other.
Queso de Mano
Aromatic, sharp, in four-ounce packages.
Queso del Fais, Queso de la Tierra
White; pressed; semisoft Consumed locally,
Queso de Prensa
The name means pressed cheese. It is eaten either fresh or after ripening two or three months.
Queso de Puna
Like U.S. cottage or Dutch cheese, eaten fresh.
Queso de Tapara
Made in Carora, near Barqisimeto, called tapara from the shape and tough skin of that local gourd. "It is very good fresh, but by the time it arrives in Carora it is often bad and dry." D.K.K. in Bueno Provecho.
Queyras see Champoléon.
Semisoft; sheep or goat; thick, round, four to five inches in diameter. Pleasantly oily, if made from sheep milk.
A playful name for Cheddar two to three years old.
Hard; skim, similar to Emmentaler; made in Mecklenburg. Sixteen by four inches, weight 32 pounds.
Germany, Switzerland, Austria
Similar to Münster.
Ragnit see Tilsit.
Soft; sweet cream; formed in cubes. Similar to Hervé
Rammil or Rammel
André Simon calls this "the best cheese made in Dorsetshire." Also called Rammilk, because made from whole or "raw milk." Practically unobtainable today.
A good imitation of Port-Salut made in Seine-et-Oise.
Brittle; mellow; nutty.
The name for all smoked cheese in Germanic countries, where it is very popular.
Ewe's milk. Uncooked; soft; sweet; creamy.
Rayon or Raper
A blind Emmentaler called Rayon is shipped young to Italy, where it is hardened by aging and then sold as Raper, for grating and seasoning.
Reblochon or Roblochon
Sheep; soft; whole milk; in season from October to June. Weight one to two pounds. A cooked cheese imitated as Brizecon in the same section.
Récollet de Gérardmer
A harvest variety similar to Géromé, made from October to April
Reggiano see Grana.
Italian Reggiano type with a name of its own, for it is not a mere imitation in this land of rich milk and extra fine cheeses.
Patriotically hailed as cheese of the empire, when Germany had one.
Lapland, Iceland, Sweden, Norway
In all far northern lands a type of Swiss is made from reindeer milk It is lightly salted, very hard; and the Lapland production is curiously formed, like a dumbbell with angular instead of round ends.
Relish cream cheese
Mixed with any piquant relish and eaten fresh.
Remoudon, or Fromage Piquant
The two names combine in re-ground piquant cheese, and that's what it is. The season is winter, from November to June.
Portugal and Brazil
Resurrection see Welsh.
A type of Roquefort which, in spite of its name, is no relation to our pie plant.
Riceys see Champenois.
Soft and fresh. The best is made from sheep buttermilk. Creamy, piquant, with subtle fragrance. Eaten with sugar and cinnamon, sometimes with a dusting of powdered coffee.
Italy and U.S.A.
Fresh, moist, unsalted cottage cheese for sandwiches, salads, lasagne, blintzes and many Italian dishes. It is also mixed with Marsala and rum and relished for dessert Ricotta may be had in every Little Italy, some of it very well made and, unfortunately, some of it a poor substitute whey cheese.
Hard; grayish white. Although its flavor is milk it is too hard and too salty for eating as is, and is mostly used for grating.
Semisoft; goat or cow; delicate flavor, lightly smoked in Bohemia's northern mountains.
This traditional Pomeranian sour-milk, caraway-seeded variety is named from the wooden trough in which it is laid to drain.
Soft; sheep or goat; sharp; resembles Mont d'Or but takes longer to ripen, two to three months.
Very similar to Crescenza (see.) Alpine winter cheese of fine quality. The form is circular and flat, weighing from eight ounces to two pounds, while Robbiolini, the baby of the family tips the scale at just under four ounces.
Same as Reblochon. A delicious form of it is made of half-dried sheep's milk in Le Grand Bornand.
Tiny sheep milk cheese weighing two ounces. In season November to May.
From the Champagne district.
Hard cylinder, eight by nine inches, weighing twenty pounds.
Rollot or Rigolot
Picardy and Montdidier, France
Soft; fermented; mold-inoculated; resembles Brie and Camembert, but much smaller. In season October to May. This is Picardy's one and only cheese.
Romadour, Romadura, and other national spellings
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland
A great Linburger. The eating season is from November to April. It is not a summer cheese, especially in lands where refrigeration is scarce. Fine brands are exported to America from several countries.
Romano, Romano Vacchino
Strong: flavoring cheese like Parmesan and Pecorino.
Similar to Romano Vacchino and Old Monterey Jack. Small grating cheese, cured one year.
King of cheeses, with its "tingling Rabelaisian pungency."
Roquefort cheese dressing, bottled
Made with genuine imported Roquefort, but with cottonseed oil instead of olive, plain instead of wine vinegar, sugar, salt, paprika, mustard, flour and spice oil.
Roquefort de Corse
This Corsican imitation is blue-colored and correctly made of sheep milk, but lacks the chalk caves of Auvergne for ripening.
Roquefort de Tournemire
Another Blue cheese of sheep milk from Languedoc, using the royal Roquefort name.
A typical small goat cheese from Forez, in a section where practically every variety is made with goat milk.
This specialty, named after its city, Rouen, is a winter cheese, eaten from October to May.
An early name for Edam.
From the greatest of the cheese provinces, Normandy.
Whole milk. Small, Limburger type.
Processed Swiss made in Denmark and shipped to Americans who haven't yet learned that a European imitation can be as bad as an American one. This particular pasteurized process-cheese spread puts its ingredients in finer type than any accident insurance policy: Samsoe (Danish Swiss) cheese, cream, water, non-fat dry milk solids, cheese whey solids and disodium phosphate.
Ruffec, Fromage de
Denmark and U.S.A.
Similar to Herrgårdsost. Small eyes. "Wheel" weighs about three pounds. Wrapped in red transparent film.
Rush Cream Cheese
England and France
Not named from the rush in which many of our cheeses are made, but from the rush mats and nets some fresh cream cheeses are wrapped and sewed up in to ripen. According to an old English recipe the curds are collected with an ordinary fish-slice and placed in a rush shape, covered with a cloth when filled. Lay a half-pound weight in a saucer and set this on top of the strained curd for a few hours, and then increase the weight by about a half pound. Change the cloths daily until the cheese looks mellow, then put into the rush shape with the fish slice. The formula in use in France, where willow heart-shape baskets are sold for making this cheese, is as follows: Add one cup new warm milk to two cups freshly-skimmed cream. Dissolve in this one teaspoon of fine sugar and one tablespoon common rennet or thirty drops of Hauser's extract of rennet. Let it remain in a warm place until curd sets. Rush and straw mats are easily made by cutting the straw into lengths and stringing them with a needle and thread. The mats or baskets should not be used a second time.
Saaland Pfarr, or Prestost
Firm; sharp; biting; unique of its kind because it is made with whiskey as an ingredient and the finished product is also washed with whiskey.
Semihard and as mellow as all good Swiss cheese. This is the finest cheese in the greatest cheese land; an Emmentaler also known as Hartkäse, Reibkäse and Walliskäse, it came to fame in the sixteenth century and has always fetched an extra price for its quality and age. It is cooked much dryer in the making, so it takes longer to ripen and then keeps longer than any other. It weighs only ten to twenty pounds and the eyes are small and scarce. The average period needed for ripening is six years, but some take nine.
Sage, or Green cheese
This is more of a cream cheese, than a Cheddar, as Sage is in the U.S.A. It is made by adding sage leaves and a greening to milk
This gourmetic center, hard by the celebrated town of Roquefort, lives up to its reputation by turning out a toothsome goat cheese of local renown.
We will not attempt to describe it further, since like most of the host of cheeses honored with the names of Saints, it is seldom shipped abroad.
Season, October to July.
Made from goat's milk.
Soft Olivet type distinguished by charcoal being added to the salt rubbed on the outside of the finished cheese. It ripens in twelve to fifteen days in summer, and eighteen to twenty in winter. It is about six inches in diameter.
Semihard; blue; goat; mellow; small; square; a quarter to a half pound. The curd is kept five to six hours only before salting and is then eaten fresh or put away to ripen.
Saint-Cyr see Mont d'Or.
Saint-Didier au Mont d'Or see Mont d'Or.
A lusty cheese, soft but salty, in season from November to July.
Another seasonal specialty from this province of many cheeses.
Made from goat's milk.
Saint-Gervais, Pots de Creme, or Le Saint Gervais
see Pots de Crème.
Saint-Heray see La Mothe.
A small goat cheese.
Similar to Brie.
Fresh dairy cream cheese containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Similar to the yogurt cheese of the U.S.A., which is made with Bacillus Bulgaricus.
Mountain sheep cheese.
A white, curd cheese.
Saint-Loup, Fromage de
Poitou and Vendée, France
Half-goat, half-cow milk, in season February to September
One of the very best of all goat cheeses. Three by ¾ inches, weighing a quarter of a pound. In season from March to December. Sometimes sheep milk may be added, even cow's, but this is essentially a goat cheese.
Soft and tangy.
Saint-Nectaire, or Senecterre
Noted as one of the greatest of all French goat cheeses.
Saint-Olivet see Chapter 3.
Saint-Pierre-Pouligny see Pouligny-Saint-Pierre.
Saint-Reine see Alise.
Saint-Rémy, Fromage de
Soft Pont l'Evêque type.
Bel Paese type.
The fromage of Saint-Winx is a traditional leader in this Belgian border province noted for its strong, spiced dairy products.
A notable Port-Salut made by Trappist monks.
A creamy concoction worthy of its saintly name.
Sainte-Maure, le, or Fromage de Sainte-Maure-de-Touraine
Made in Touraine from May to November. Similar to Valençay.
Soft sheep's milk cheese stuffed into bladderlike sausage, to ripen. It has authority and flavor when ready to spread on bread, or to mix with cornmeal and cook into a highly cheese-flavored porridge.
Soft cream cheese stuffed into skins like salami sausages. Salami-sausage style of packing cheese has always been common in Italy, from Provolone down, and now—both as salami and links—it has became extremely popular for processed and cheese foods throughout America.
Salers, Bleu de
One of the very good French Blues.
White cheese made from sheep's milk.
An aromatic farm-made hand cheese of skim milk. Short cylinder, 1½ to two inches in diameter, weighing a quarter of a pound. Made near the capital, Lisbon, on many small farms.
Favorite of Emperor Augustus a couple of thousand years ago.
Firm; highly colored; tangy; boxed in half-pound slabs. The same as Whitethorn except for the added color. Whitethorn is as white as its name implies.
Salt-free cheese, for diets
U.S. cottage; French fresh goat cheese; and Luxembourg Kochenkäse.
Hard; white; sharp; slightly powdery and sweetish. This is the pet cheese of Erik Blegvad who illustrated this book.
An American mixture of chopped nuts with Cream cheese or Neufchâtel.
A Romano type made in Sardinia.
The typical hard grating cheese of this section of Italy.
Hard; sharp; for table and for seasoning. Imitated in the Argentine. There is also a Pecorino named Sardo.
Sarraz or Sarrazin
Semihard; bluer and stronger than Stilton. This makes a French trio of Blues with Septmoncel and Gex, all three of which are made with the three usual milks mixed: cow, goat and sheep. A succulent fermented variety for which both Grenoble and Sassenage are celebrated.
Hard cheese made in Saxony.
Semisoft; mellow; tangy Port-Salut made by Trappist monks in Savoy.
Hard; dry; nutty; Parmesan grating type.
Soft as butter; sheep; burnt taste, delicious with fruits. Blackened rind, deep yellow interior.
Scarmorze or Scamorze
Hard; buffalo milk; mild Provolone type. Also called Pear from being made in that shape, oddly enough also in pairs, tied together to hang from rafters on strings in ripening rooms or in the home kitchen. Fine when sliced thick and fried in olive oil. A specialty around Naples. Light-tan oiled rind, about 3½ by five inches in size. Imitated in Wisconsin and sold as Pear cheese.
Schabziger see Chapter 3.
Schafkäse (Sheep Cheese)
Soft; part sheep milk; smooth and delightful.
Schamser, or Rheinwald
Canton Graubiinden, Switzerland
Large skim-milker eighteen by five inches, weighing forty to forty-six pounds.
This might be translated "milk mud." It's another name for Bloder, sour milk "waddle" cheese.
Hard; sour-milker; made like hand cheese. Laid on straw-covered shelves, dried by a stove in winter and in open latticed sheds in summer. When very dry and hard, it is put to ripen in a cellar three to eight weeks and washed with warm water two or three times a week.
Soft, fresh skim, sour curd, broken up and cooked at 100° for a short time. Lightly pressed in a cloth sack twenty- four hours, then kneaded and shaped by hand, as all hand cheeses are. Sometimes sharply flavored with onions or caraway. Eaten fresh, before the strong hand cheese odor develops.
Schloss, Schlosskäse, or Bismarck
This Castle cheese, also named for Bismarck and probably a favorite of his, together with Bismarck jelly doughnuts, is an aristocratic Limburger that served as a model for Liederkranz.
German cottage cheese that becomes smearcase in America.
Imitation of Italian Bel Paese, also translated "beautiful land."
Romadur-type. Small rectangular blocks weighing less than four ounces and wrapped in tin foil.
A whey cheese made and consumed locally in the Alps.
Hungary and Bohemia
One part skim to two parts fresh milk. It takes two to three months to ripen.
German for Swiss cheese. (See Emmentaler.)
Schweizerost Dansk, Danish Swiss Cheese
A popular Danish imitation of Swiss Swiss cheese that is nothing wonderful.
A goat cheese, eaten from February to September.
Soft, whole-milk; cylindrical, weighing about 1½ pounds.
Semihard; skim; blue-veined; made of all three milks: cow, goat and sheep. An excellent "Blue" ranked above Roquefort by some, and next to Stilton. Also called Jura Bleu, and a member of the triple milk triplets with Gex and Sassenage.
Made most primitively by dropping heated stones into a kettle of milk over an open fire. After the rennet is added, the curd stands for an hour and is separated from the whey by being lifted in a cheesecloth and strained. It is finally put in a wooden vessel to ripen. First it is salted, then covered each day with whey for eight days and finally with fresh milk for six.
Syria also makes a cheese called Serbian from goat's milk. It is semisoft.
Serbian Butter see Kajmar.
Serra da Estrella, Queijo da (Cheese of the Star Mountain Range)
The finest of several superb mountain-sheep cheeses in Portugal. Other milk is sometimes added, but sheep is standard. The milk is coagulated by an extract of thistle or cardoon flowers in two to six hours. It is ripened in circular forms for several weeks and marketed in rounds averaging five pounds, about ten by two inches. The soft paste inside is pleasantly oily and delightfully acid.
U.S. aged Cheddars, including Monterey Jack; Italian Romano Fecorino, Old Asiago, Gorgonzola, Incanestrato and Caciocavallo; Spanish de Fontine; Aged Roumanian Kaskaval.
Poland and Germany
White; mellow; caraway-seeded. Imitated in the U.S.A. (see Schlesischer.)
In Yugoslavia, Montenegro and adjacent lands Sir or Cyr means cheese. Mostly this type is made of skimmed sheep milk and has small eyes or holes, a sharp taste and resemblance to both American Brick and Limburger. They are much fewer than the Saint cheeses in France.
Sir Iz Mjesine
Primitively made by heating skim sheep milk in a bottle over an open fire, coagulating it quickly with pig or calf rennet, breaking up the curd with a wooden spoon and stirring it by hand over the fire. Pressed into forms eight inches square and two inches thick, it is dried for a day and either eaten fresh or cut into cubes, salted, packed in green sheep or goat hides, and put away to ripen.
Fresh sheep milk.
Hard; skim sheep milk; white, with many small holes. Also answers to the names of Tord and Mrsav.
Sir, Twdr see Twdr Sir.
Sir, Warshawski see Warshawski Syr.
Semisoft; whole milk. Mellow.
The one standard cheese of the country. A cross between Devonshire cream and cream cheese, eaten with sugar and cream. It is very well liked and filling, so people are apt to take too much. A writer on the subject gives this bit of useful information for travelers: "It is not advisable, however, to take coffee and Skyr together just before riding, as it gives you diarrhea."
Slipcote, or Colwick
Soft; unripened; small; white; rich as butter. The curd is put in forms six by two inches for the whey to drain away. When firm it is placed between cabbage leaves to ripen for a week or two, and when it is taken from the leaves the skin or coat becomes loose and easily slips off—hence the name. In the middle of the eighteenth century it was considered the best cream cheese in England and was made then, as today, in Wissenden, Rutlandshire.
Soft and melting.
Old English corruption of German Schmierkäse, long used in America for cottage cheese.
A well-smoked cheese in block form.
Smoked Mozzarella see Mozzarella Affumicata.
Soft; sheep; packed like sausage in skins or bladders and smoked.
A small smoked cheese.
Soaked-curd cheese see Washed-curd cheese.
Semihard; whole milk; fermented; yellow, with reddish brown rind. Full flavor, high smell. Similar to Maroilles in taste and square shape, but smaller.
Sorte Maggenga and Sorte Vermenga
Two "sorts" of Italian Parmesan.
Soumaintrain, Fromage de
Soft; fine; strong variety from Upper Burgundy.
Because this cheese is made of vegetable milk and often developed with a vegetable rennet, it is rated by many as a regular cheese. But our occidental kind with animal milk and rennet is never eaten by Chinese and the mere mention of it has been known to make them shiver.
Spalen or Stringer
A small Emmentaler of fine reputation made in the Canton of Unterwalden from whole and partly skimmed milk and named from the vessel in which five or six are packed and transported together.
Sperrkäse see Dry.
Many a bland cheese is saved from oblivion by the addition of spice, to give it zest. One or more spices are added in the making and thoroughly mixed with the finished product, so the cheese often takes the name of the spice: Kuminost or Kommenost for cumin; Caraway in English and several other languages, among them Kümmel, Nokkelost and Leyden; Friesan Clove and Nagelkass; Sage; Thyme, cloverleaf Sapsago; whole black pepper Pepato, etc.
Spiced and Spiced Spreads
Government standards for spiced cheeses and spreads specify not less than 1½ ounces of spice to 100 pounds of cheese.
Spiced Fondue see Vacherin Fondu.
Small cylinder, four by one and a half inches. Caraway spiced, Limburger-like. see Backsteiner.
Soft; small; cream.
Sharp and pleasantly salty, packed fresh from the brine bath in one-pound jars. As tasty as all Greek cheeses because they are made principally from sheep milk.
Aromatic, piquant "stone." A beer stein accompaniment well made after the old German original.
Semihard; firm; full cream; mildly sour and pungent. Brick forms, reddish and buttery. Originated in Frankfurt. Highly thought of at home but little known abroad.
Russia, Germany, Austria, Denmark
German colonists made and named this in Russia. Rich and mellow, it tastes like Tilsiter and is now made in Denmark for export, as well as in Germany and Austria for home consumption.
Stirred curd cheese
Similar to Cheddar, but more granular, softer in texture and marketed younger.
Soft; goat; fresh cream; winter; light yellow; very sharp, rich and pungent. Made in many parts of Italy and eaten sliced, never grated. A fine cheese of which Taleggio is the leading variety. See Certoso Stracchino.
Stracchino Crescenza is an extremely soft and highly colored member of this distinguished family.
Well-aged, according to the name. Creamy and mellow.
Stringer see Spalen.
Whole milk. Cylindrical form.
An old-timer, seldom seen today. Stony-hard, horny "flet milk" cartwheels locally nicknamed "bang." Never popular anywhere, it has stood more abuse than Limburger, not for its smell but for its flinty hardness.
"Hunger will break through stone walls and anything
except a Suffolk cheese."
"Those that made me were uncivil
For they made me harder than the devil.
Knives won't cut me; fire won't sweat me;
Dogs bark at me, but can't eat me."
Buffalo milk. Uncolored.
Semihard and semisoft.
A national pride, named for its country, Swedish cheese, to match Swiss cheese and Dutch cheese. It comes in three qualities: full cream, ¾ cream, and half cream. Soft; rich; ready to eat at six weeks and won't keep past six months. A whole-hearted, whole-milk, wholesome cheese named after the country rather than a part of it as most osts are.
Hard Cheddar, differing in that the milk is set sweet and the curd cooked firmer and faster, salted and pressed at once. When ripe, however, it is hardly distinguishable from the usual Cheddar made by the granular process.
In 1845 emigrants from Galrus, Switzerland, founded New Galrus, Wisconsin and, after failing at farming due to cinch bugs gobbling their crops, they turned to cheesemaking and have been at it ever since. American Swiss, known long ago as picnic cheese, has been their standby, and only in recent years these Wisconsin Schweizers have had competition from Ohio and other states who turn out the typical cartwheels, which still look like the genuine imported Emmentaler.
Soft; sheep; packed in links of bladders and sometimes smoked. This is the type of foreign cheese that set the popular style for American processed links, with wine flavors and everything.
Taffel, Table, Taffelost
A Danish brand name for an ordinary slicing cheese.
Made in the rich province of Tucuman.
Taiviers, les Petits Fromages de
Very small and tasty goat cheese.
Soft, whole-milk, Stracchino type.
Port-Salut made by Trappist monks at Savoy from their method that is more or less a trade secret. Tome de Beaumont is an imitation produced not far away.
Tao-foo or Tofu
China, Japan, the Orient
Soybean curd or cheese made from the "milk" of soybeans. The beans are ground and steeped, made into a paste that's boiled so the starch dissolves with the casein. After being strained off, the "milk" is coagulated with a solution of gypsum. This is then handled in the same way as animal milk in making ordinary cow-milk cheeses. After being salted and pressed in molds it is ready to be warmed up and added to soups and cooked dishes, as well as being eaten as is.
Similar to Brinza and sometimes called Branza de Bralia. Made of sheep's milk and rapidly ripened, so it is ready to eat in ten days.
Term used to designate Parmesan-type cheese made in winter.
Tête à Tête, Tête de Maure, Moor's Head
Round in shape. French name for Dutch Edam.
Tête de Moine, Monk's Head
A soft "head" weighing ten to twenty pounds. Creamy, tasty, summer Swiss, imitated in Jura, France, and also called Bellelay.
Tête de Mort see Fromage Gras for this death's head.
"The Tempting cheese of Fyvie"
Something on the order of Eve's apple, according to the Scottish rhyme that exposes it:
The first love token ye gae me
Was the tempting cheese of Fyvie.
O wae be to the tempting cheese,
The tempting cheese of Fyvie,
Gat me forsake my ain gude man
And follow a fottman laddie.
Sheep's milk cheese of three or four pounds made on the island of Texel, off the coast of the Netherlands.
Resembles Camembert and Vendôme.
A fine Emmentaler.
An undistinguished Cheddar named for the three counties that make most of the Irish cheese.
A hand cheese spiked with caraway.
Soft and mellow, with the contrasting pungence of thyme. Two other herbal cheeses are flavored with thyme—both French: Fromage Fort II, Hazebrook II.
The small, hard, grating cheeses named after the country Tibet, are of sheep's milk, in cubes about two inches on all sides, with holes to string them through the middle, fifty to a hundred on each string. They suggest Chinese strings of cash and doubtless served as currency, in the same way as Chinese cheese money. (See under Money.)
Hard; sheep or goat; blue-veined; sharp; tangy; from Tigne Valley in Savoy. Similar to Gex, Sassenage and Septmoncel.
Hard; sharp; biting; named from the border race-track town.
Tillamook see Chapter 4.
Tilsit, or Tilsiter Käse, also called Ragnit
This classical variety of East Prussia is similar to American Brick. Made of whole milk, with many small holes that give it an open texture, as in Port-Salut, which it also resembles, although it is stronger and coarser.
Old Tilsiter is something special in aromatic tang, and attempts to imitate it are made around the world. One of them, Ovár, is such a good copy it is called Hungarian Tilsit. There are American, Danish, and Canadian—even Swiss—imitations.
The genuine Tilsit has been well described as "forthright in flavor; a good snack cheese, but not suitable for elegant post-prandial dallying."
A Montenegrin imitation Tilsiter.
Tome de Beaumont
Whole cow's milk.
Also called Fourme, Cantal, or Fromage de Cantal. A kind of Cheddar that comes from Ambert, Aubrac, Aurillac, Grand-Murol, Rôche, Salers, etc.
Tome de Chèvre
Soft goat cheese.
Tome de Savoie
Soft paste; goat or cow. Others in the same category are: Tome des Beagues, Tome au Fenouil, Tome Doudane.
Imitation of French Gruyère in 2½ ounce packages.
Topf or Topfkäse
A cooked cheese to which Pennsylvania pot is similar. Sour skim milk cheese, eaten fresh and sold in packages of one ounce. When cured it is flaky.
Toscano, or Pecorino Toscano
Sheep's milk cheese like Romano but softer, and therefore used as a table cheese.
A smaller edition of Toscano.
Skim milk often curdled with Korourou leaves. The soft curd is then dipped out onto mats like pancake batter and sun dried for ten days or placed by a fire for six, with frequent turning. Very hard and dry and never salted. Made from Lake Tchad to the Barbary States by Berber tribes.
Besides naming this Berry cheese, Tour Eiffel serves as a picturesque label and trademark for a brand of Camembert.
Similar to Feta.
Small goat cheese.
Tourne de chèvre
Trappe, la, or Oka
Truly fine Port-Salut named for the Trappist order and its Canadian monastery.
Trappist see Chapter 3.
Trappist Port-Salut imitation.
Swiss or Gruyère aged in Swiss Neuchâtel wine and so named for the grape.
Albania, Russia, Yugoslavia
Soft, sheep whole milk with a little goat sometimes and occasionally skim milk. More than a century of success in Europe, Turkey and adjacent lands where it is also known as Arnauten, Arnautski Sir and Vlasic.
When fresh it is almost white and has a mild, pleasing taste. It ripens to a stronger flavor in from two weeks to several months, and is not so good if holes should develop in it. The pure sheep-milk type when aged is characteristically oily and sharp.
Traz os Montes
Soft; sheep; oily; rich; sapid. For city turophiles nostalgically named "From the Mountains." All sheep cheese is oily, some of it a bit muttony, but none of it at all tallowy.
Small, braided cheese, eaten fresh.
Normandy cheese in season all the year around.
Made and consumed in Touraine from May to January.
Soft, fresh, whole milk. Pont l'Evêque type of superior quality.
Troyes, Fromage de see Barberey and Ervy.
No. I: Wiltshire, England. Skimmed milk; blue-veined variety like Blue Vinny. The quaint word is the same as used in truckle or trundle bed. On Shrove Monday Wiltshire kids went from door to door singing for a handout:
Pray, dame, something,
An apple or a dumpling,
Or a piece of Truckle cheese
Of your own making.
No. II: Local name in the West of England for a full cream Cheddar put up in loaves.
Also known as Leaf, Telpanir and Zwirn. Skim milk of either sheep or cows. Made into cakes and packed in skins in a land where wine is drunk from skin canteens, often with Tschil.
Tuile de Flandre
A type of Marolles.
Salty from being soaked in brine.
Tuna, Prickly Pear
Not an animal milk cheese, but a vegetable one, made by boiling and straining the pulp of the cactuslike prickly pear fruit to cheeselike consistency. It is chocolate-color and sharp, piquantly pleasant when hard and dry. It is sometimes enriched with nuts, spices and/or flowers. It will keep for a very long time and has been a dessert or confection in Mexico for centuries.
Semihard; cream color; a sort of Tuscany Parmesan.
Semisoft sheep skim-milk cheese with small holes and a sharp taste. Pressed in forms two by ten to twelve inches in diameter. Similar to Brick or Limburger.
Outstanding American Cheddar marketed by Joannes Brothers, Green Bay, Wisconsin.
Semihard sour milk farm (not factory) made. It is used in the cheese bread called Notruschki.
Made in Copenhagen from pasteurized skim milk.
A typical Tyrolean hand cheese.
The opposite number of Tzigen, just below.
Semisoft; skimmed sheep, goat or cow milk. White; sharp and salty; originated in Dalmatia.
Creamy; sweet; mild.
Hard; brittle; white; tangy. Made in the Canton of Uri. Eight by eight to twelve inches, weight twenty to forty pounds.
Mild flavored. Cooked curd.
Urt, Fromage d'
Soft Port-Salut type of the Basque country.
France and Switzerland
I. Vacherin à la Main. Savoy, France. Firm, leathery rind, soft interior like Brie or Camembert; round, five to six by twelve inches in diameter. Made in summer to eat in winter. When fully ripe it is almost a cold version of the great dish called Fondue. Inside the hard-rind container is a velvety, spicy, aromatic cream, more runny than Brie, so it can be eaten with a spoon, dunked in, or spread on bread. The local name is Tome de Montague.
II. Vacherin Fondu, or Spiced Fondu. Switzerland. Although called Fondu from being melted, the No. I Vacherin comes much closer to our conception of the dish Fondue, which we spell with an "e."
Vacherin No. II might be called a re-cooked and spiced Emmentaler, for the original cheese is made, and ripened about the same as the Swiss classic and is afterward melted, spiced and reformed into Vacherin.
Val-d'Andorre, Fromage du
Hard, dried, small Alpine goat cheese.
Valençay, or Fromage de Valençay
Soft; cream; goat milk; similar to Saint-Maure. In season from May to December. This was a favorite with Francis I.
One-ounce wedges, six to a box, labeled pasteurized process Swiss cheese, made by the Cooperative Butter Export Association, Helsinki, Finland, to sell to North Americans to help them forget what real cheese is.
Crumbly and sharp.
Alpine. Piquant, strong in flavor and smell.
Varennes, Fromage de
Soft, fine, strong variety from Upper Burgundy.
Slow-maturing. One to one-and-a-half years in ripening to a pungent, almost bitter taste.
West Gothland, Sweden
Semihard; sweet and nutty. Takes a half year to mature. Weight twenty to thirty pounds.
Vendôme, Fromage de
Hard; sheep; round and flat; like la Cendrée in being ripened under ashes. There is also a soft Vendôme sold mostly in Paris.
Parmesan type, similar to Asiago. Usually sharp.
Winter cheese of Béarn in season October to May.
The brand name of a cream cheese made in Guilford.
Ile-de-France winter specialty in season from November to May.
Soft, one-pound squares made in Haute-Marne.
Viry-vory, or Vary
Fresh cream cheese.
Sheep milk usually curdled with wild artichoke, Cynara Scolymus. Strong grating and seasoning type of the Parmesan-Romano-Pecorino family.
Ewe's milk; suitable for grating.
Soft associate of Pont l'Evêque and Limburger.
The name means "full cream" cheese and that—according to law—has 45% fat in the dry product (See Gras.)
Hard; greasy; semicircular form of different sizes, with extra-strong flavor and odor. The name indicates that it is made of sour milk.
Fresh cream variety like Neufchâtel and Petit Suisse.
Semihard; fine nutty flavor; named for the capital city of Poland.
Similar to Cheddar. The curd is washed to remove acidity and any abnormal flavors.
A mild, full cream loaf of Danish blue that can be very good if fully ripened.
Similar to Weisslacker, a slow-ripening variety that takes four months.
Weisslacker, White Lacquer
Soft; piquant; semisharp; Allgäuer-type put up in cylinders and rectangles, 4½ by 4 by 3½, weighing 2½ pounds. One of Germany's finest soft cheeses.
The words Welsh and cheese have become synonyms down the ages. Welsh "cheeses can be attractive: the pale, mild Caerphilly was famous at one time, and nowadays has usually a factory flavor. A soft cream cheese can be obtained at some farms, and sometimes holds the same delicate melting sensuousness that is found in the poems of John Keats.
"The 'Resurrection Cheese' of Llanfihangel Abercowyn is no longer available, at least under that name. This cheese was so called because it was pressed by gravestones taken from an old church that had fallen into ruins. Often enough the cheeses would be inscribed with such wording as 'Here lies Blodwen Evans, aged 72.'" (From My Wales by Rhys Davies.)
I. England, Yorkshire. Hard; blue-veined; double cream; similar to
Stilton. This production of the medieval town of Wensleydale in the Ure Valley is also called Yorkshire-Stilton and is in season from June to September. It is put up in the same cylindrical form as Stilton, but smaller. The rind is corrugated from the way the wrapping is put on.
II. White; flat-shaped; eaten fresh; made mostly from January through the Spring, skipping the season when the greater No. I is made (throughout the summer) and beginning to be made again in the fall and winter.
Werder, Elbinger and Niederungskäse
Semisoft cow's-milker, mildly acid, shaped like Gouda.
Skim-milk cheese eaten when only a week old. The honored antiquity of it is preserved in the anonymous English couplet:
Good bread, good butter and good cheese
Is good English and good Friese.
Westphalia Sour Milk, or Brioler
Sour-milk hand cheese, kneaded by hand. Butter and/or egg yolk is mixed in with salt, and either pepper or caraway seeds. Then the richly colored curd is shaped by hand into small balls or rolls of about one pound. It is dried for a couple of hours before being put down cellar to ripen. The peculiar flavor is due partly to the seasonings and partly to the curd being allowed to putrify a little, like Limburger, before pressing.
This sour-milker is as celebrated as Westphalian raw ham. It is so soft and fat it makes a sumptuous spread, similar to Tilsit and Brinza. It was named Brioler from the "Gute Brioler" inn where it was perfected by the owner, Frau Westphal, well over a century ago.
The English sometimes miscall it Bristol from a Hobson-Jobson of the name Briol.
In The Cheddar Box, Dean Collins tells of an ancient legend in which the whales came into Tillamook Bay to be milked; and he poses the possible origin of some waxy fossilized deposits along the shore as petrified whale-milk cheese made by the aboriginal Indians after milking the whales.
White, Fromage Blanc
Skim-milk summer cheese made in many parts of the country and eaten fresh, with or without salt.
Any Cheddar that isn't colored with anatto is known as White Cheddar. Green Bay brand is a fine example of it.
This type without the distinguishing blue veins is little known outside of Italy where it is highly esteemed. (See Gorgonzola.)
This white form of England's royal blue cheese lacks the aristocratic veins that are really as green as Ireland's flag.
Firm; white; tangy; half-pound slabs boxed. Saltee is the same, except that it is colored.
Wilstermarsch-Käse Holsteiner Marsch
Semihard; full cream; rapidly cured; Tilsit type; very fine; made at Itzehoe.
Wiltshire or Wilts
A Derbyshire type of sharp Cheddar popular in Wiltshire. (See North Wilts.)
Wisconsin Factory Cheeses
Have the date of manufacture stamped on the rind, indicating by the age whether the flavor is "mild, mellow, nippy, or sharp." American Cheddar requires from eight months to a year to ripen properly, but most of it is sold green when far too young.
Notable Wisconsiners are Loaf, Limburger, Redskin and Swiss.
Cow taboos affect the cheesemaking in India, and in place of rennet from calves a vegetable rennet is made from withania berries. This names a cheese of agreeable flavor when ripened, but, unfortunately, it becomes acrid with age.
Yoghurt, or Yogurt
Made with Bacillus bulgaricus, that develops the acidity of the milk. It is similar to the English Saint Ivel.
York, York Curd and Cambridge York
A high-grade cream cheese similar to Slipcote, both of which are becoming almost extinct since World War II. Also, this type is too rich to keep any length of time and is sold on the straw mat on which it is cured, for local consumption.
This Stilton, made chiefly at Cotherstone, develops with age a fine internal fat which makes it so extra-juicy that it's a general favorite with English epicures who like their game well hung.
Short for New York State, the most venerable of our Cheddars.
A mild, young, yellow Cheddar.
Copying pear-and apple-shaped balls of Italian Provolone hanging on strings, a New York cheesemonger put out a Cheddar on a string, shaped like a yo-yo.
Whole milk, or whole milk with cream added. Aged only two months.
A general name in Germanic lands for cheeses made of goat's milk. Altenburger is a leader among Ziegenkäse.
I. This whey product is not a true cheese, but a cheap form of food
made in all countries of central Europe and called albumin cheese, Recuit, Ricotta, Broccio, Brocotte, Serac, Ceracee, etc. Some are flavored with cider and others with vinegar. There is also a whey bread.
II. Similar to Corsican Broccio and made of sour sheep milk instead of whey. Sometimes mixed with sugar into small cakes.
Zips see Brinza.
Similar to Caciocavallo.
Zwirn see Tschil.