Soft; goat's milk; two inches square by one and a half inches thick.
Soft Camembert type, made in the same region, but sold at a cheaper price.
Named for Madrid where it is made.
"Cow cheese" made in Magdeburg.
Magerkäse see Holstein Skim Milk
A term for Parmesan types made between April and September.
Also called Fromage Mou. Soft; white; sharp; spread.
A name for Brie made in summer and inferior to both the winter Gras and spring Migras.
Sheep; cooked; drained; salted; made into forms and put into a brine bath where it stays sometimes a year.
Maile Pener (Fat Cheese)
Sheep; crumbly; open texture and pleasing flavor when ripened.
Semihard; full cream; round; red outside, yellow within. Weight three pounds.
Typical hand cheese, kneaded by hand thoroughly, which makes for quality, pressed into flat cakes by hand, dried for a week, packed in kegs or jars and ripened in the cellar six to eight weeks. As in making bread, the skill in kneading Mainzer makes a worthy craft.
An exceptional variety of the three usual milks mixed together: goat, sheep and cow, flavored with spices and olive oil. A kind of Incanestrato.
A form of Neufchâtel about a half inch by two inches, eaten fresh or ripe.
In season from October to July.
Mano, Queso de
A kind of Venezuelan hand cheese, as its Spanish name translates. (See Venezuelan.)
Manor House see Herrgårdsost.
Cheese and butter combined in a small brick of butter with a covering of Mozzarella. This is for slicing—not for cooking—which is unusual for any Italian cheese.
Manur, or Manuri
Sheep or cow's milk heated to boiling, then cooled "until the fingers can be held in it". A mixture of fresh whey and buttermilk is added with the rennet. "The curd is lifted from the whey in a cloth and allowed to drain, when it is kneaded like bread, lightly salted, and dried."
Another name for Fromage Mou, Soft Cheese.
Ewe's milk; hard.
An oily cheese made with oleomargarine.
Soft; cream; small.
Limburger type. About 4½ inches square and 1½ inches thick; weight about a pound. Wrapped in tin foil.
Märkisch, or Märkisch Hand
Soft; smelly; hand type.
Maroilles, Marolles, Marole
Semisoft and semihard, half way between Pont l'Evêque and Limburger. Full flavor, high smell, reddish brown rind, yellow within. Five inches square and 2¼ inches thick; some larger.
Martha Washington Aged Cheese
Made by Kasper of Bear Creek, Wisconsin.
Mascarpone, or Macherone
Soft; white; delicate fresh cream from Lombardy. Usually packed in muslin or gauze bags, a quarter to a half pound.
An early Klondike Cheddar named by its maker, Peter McIntosh, and described as being as yellow as that "Alaskan gold, which brought at times about ounce for ounce over mining-camp counters." The Cheddar Box by Dean Collins.
Pioneer club type of snappy Cheddar in a pot, originally made in Canada, now by Kraft in the U.S A.
Made by the Iowa State College at Ames.
No more distinguished than most skim-milkers.
Made in the Champagne district.
Sharp; aromatic; trade-marked package.
Excellent for a processed cheese. White; flavorsome. Packed in half moons.
France Brown-red rind, yellow inside; high-smelling. There is also a Brie de Melun.
Sharp; goat; from the Mentelto mountains
Semisoft; white; creamy; sharp; historic since the time of the Merovingian kings.
Eaten when fresh and unsalted; also when ripened. Soft, ewe's milk.
Season October to June.
Soft; piquant; aromatic.
Midget Salami Provolone
This goes Baby Goudas and Edams one better by being a sort of sausage, too.
White, No. I: Soft; fresh; in small cubes or cylinders; in season only in summer, April to September.
Passe, No. II: Soft but ripened, and in the same forms, but only seasonal in winter, October to March. Similar to Pont l'Evêque and popular for more than a century. It goes specially well with Calvados cider, fresh, hard or distilled.
Name given to spring Brie—midway between fat winter Gras and thin summer Maigre.
Milano, Stracchino di Milano, Fresco, Quardo
Similar to Bel Paese. Yellow, with thin rind. 1½ to 2¾ inches thick, 3 to 6½ pounds.
Milk Mud see Schlickermilch.
A Thousand Flowers—as highly scented as its sentimental name. Yet no cheeses are so freshly fragrant as these flowery Alpine ones.
Robust texture and flavor reminiscent of free-lunch and old-time bars.
Milks that make cheese around the world:
Ass Buffalo Camel Chamois Elephant Goat Human (see Mother's milk) Llama Mare Reindeer Sea cow (Amazonian legend) Sheep Whale (legendary; see Whale Cheese) Yak Zebra Zebu
U.S. pure food laws prohibit cheeses made of unusual or strange animal's milk, such as camel, llama and zebra.
and Hand Käse U.S.A.
and Hand Käse U.S.A.
Aromatic with caraway, brought from Germany by early emigrants and successfully imitated.
Name for the Brazilian state of Minas Geraes, where it is made. Semihard; white; round two-pounder; often chalky. The two best brands are one called Primavera, Spring, and another put out by the Swiss professors who teach the art at the Agricultural University in the State Capital, Bello Horizonte.
A good national product known from coast to coast. Besides Blue, Minnesota makes good all-American Brick and Cheddar, natural nationals to be proud of.
in Macedonia; and
Sheep; soft; succulent; and as pleasantly greasy as other sheep cheeses from Greece. It's a by-product of the fabulous Feta.
Made in U.S.A. during World War II. Parmesan-type.
Mohawk Limburger Spread
A brand that comes in one-pound jars.
Similar to Caciocavallo. (See.)
Semihard, similar to Maroilles.
Similar to Gorgonzola.
Mondseer, Mondseer Schachtelkäse, Mondseer Schlosskäse
This little family with a lot of long names is closely related to the Münster tribe, with very distant connections with the mildest branch of the Limburgers.
The Schachtelkäse is named from the wooden boxes in which it is shipped, while the Schlosskäse shows its class by being called Castle Cheese, probably because it is richer than the others, being made of whole milk.
Money made of cheese
In the Chase National Bank collection of moneys of the world there is a specimen of "Cheese money" about which the curator, Farran Zerbee, writes: "A specimen of the so-called 'cheese money' of Northern China, 1850-70, now in the Chase Bank collection, came to me personally some thirty years ago from a woman missionary, who had been located in the field where she said a cake form of condensed milk, and referred to as 'cheese,' was a medium of exchange among the natives. It, like other commodities, particularly compressed tea, was prized as a trading medium in China, in that it had value as nutriment and was sufficiently appreciated by the population as to be exchangeable for other articles of service."
Monk's Head see Tête de Moine.
Soft; salted; rich in flavor.
Monsieur Fromage see Fromage de Monsieur Fromage.
A mountain cheese.
Austria and Italy
Usually skimmed goat and cow milk mixed. When finished, the rind is often rubbed with olive oil or blackened with soot. It is eaten both fresh, white and sweet, and aged, when it is yellow, granular and sharp, with a characteristic flavor. Mostly used when three to twelve months old, but kept much longer and grated for seasoning. Widely imitated in America.
Montauban de Bretagne, Fromage de
A celebrated cheese of Brittany.
Sour and sometimes sweet milk, made tasty with dried herbs of the Achittea family.
An Alpine cheese.
Southeastern France Usually made of all three available milks, cow, goat and sheep; it is semi-hard and blue-veined like the other Roquefort imitations, Gex and Septmoncel. Primitive methods are still used in the making and sometimes the ripening is done by penicillium introduced in moldy bread. Large rounds, eighteen by six to eight inches, weighing twenty-five pounds.
Trappist monk-made Port-Salut.
A fresh cream.
Mont d'or, le, or Mont Dore
Soft; whole milk; originally goat, now cow; made throughout the Rhone Valley. Fat, golden-yellow and "relished by financiers" according to Victor Meusy. Between Brie and Pont l'Evêque but more delicate than either, though not effeminate. Alpin and Riola are similar. The best is still turned out at Mont d'Or, with runners-up in St. Cyr and St. Didier.
A sour-milker made fragrant with herbs added to the curd.
Hard; sharp; perhaps inspired by Montery Jack that's made in California and along the Mexican border.
Whole or partly skimmed milk; soft in quality and large in size, weighing up to 5½ pounds. Notable only for its patriotic tri-color in ripening, with whitish mold that turns blue and has red spots.
Semihard and sharp.
In season from November to July.
A little-known product of Champagne.
In his book about French varieties, Les Fromages, Maurice des Ombiaux sums up the many exotic milks made into cheese and recounts the story of Paul Bert, who served a cheese "white as snow" that was so delicately appetizing it was partaken of in "religious silence." All the guests guessed, but none was right. So the host announced it was made of "lait de femme" and an astounded turophile exclaimed, "Then all of us are cannibals."
Soft; yellow; sharp.
Mountain, Azuldoch see Azuldoch.
Yellow; mellow; mild and porous California Cheddar.
Mouse or Mouse Trap
Common name for young, green, cracked, leathery or rubbery low-grade store cheese fit only to bait traps. When it's aged and sharp, however, the same cheese can be bait for caseophiles.
Soft; water-buffalo milk; moistly fresh and unripened; bland, white cooking cheese put up in balls or big bowl-like cups weighing about a half pound and protected with wax paper. The genuine is made at Cardito, Aversa, Salernitano and in the Mazzoni di Capua. Like Ricotta, this is such a popular cheese all over America that it is imitated widely, and often badly, with a bitter taste.
Mozzarella-Affumicata, also called Scamozza
Semisoft; smooth; white; bland; un-salted. Put up in pear shapes of about one pound, with tan rind, from smoking.
Eaten chiefly sliced, but prized, both fresh and smoked, in true Italian one-dish meals such as Lasagne and Pizza.
A pet name for a diminutive edition of Mozzarella.
Mrsav see Sir Posny.
German originally, now made from Colmar, Strassburg and Copenhagen to Milwaukee in all sorts of imitations, both good and bad. Semihard; whole milk; yellow inside, brick-red outside; flavor from mild to strong, depending on age and amount of caraway or anise seed added. Best in winter season, from November to April.
Münster is a world-wide classic that doubles for both German and French. Géromé is a standard French type of it, with a little longer season, beginning in April, and a somewhat different flavor from anise seed. Often, instead of putting the seeds inside, a dish of caraway is served with the cheese for those who like to flavor to taste.
In Alsace, Münster is made plain and also under the name of Münster au Cumin because of the caraway.
American imitations are much milder and marketed much younger. They are supposed to blend the taste of Brick and Limburger; maybe they do.
A processed domestic, Gruyère type.
Imitated with goat's milk in Southern Colorado.
Made in all Scandinavian countries and imitated in the U.S.A. A whey cheese, buttery, mild and sweetish with a caramel color all through, instead of the heavy chocolate or dark tobacco shade of Gjetost. Frimost is a local name for it. The American imitations are cylindrical and wrapped in tin foil.
Nagelkassa (Fresh), Fresh Clove Cheese, called Nageles in Holland
Skim milk; curd mixed with caraway and cloves called nails, nagel, in Germany and Austria. The large flat rounds resemble English Derby.
Nantais, or Fromage du Curé, Cheese of the Curate
A special variety dedicated to some curate of Nantes.
Soft; whole milk; round and very thin.
Neufchâtel, or Petit Suisse
Soft; whole milk; small loaf.
Cream cheese from the New Forest district.
Sour milk; with salt and caraway seed added, sometimes beer or milk. Covered lightly with straw and packed in kegs with hops to ripen. Both beer and hops in one cheese is unique.
In season from October to May.
Noekkelost or Nögelost
Similar to spiced Leyden or Edam with caraway, and shaped like a Gouda.
Trade name for an American imitation of a Scandinavian variety, perhaps suggested by Swedish Nordost.
Semisoft; white; baked; salty and smoky.
Cheddar type; smooth; hard rind; rich but delicate in flavor. Small size, ten to twelve pounds; named for its locale.
An ancient-of-days variety of which there are two kinds:
I. Formaggio Duro: hard, as its name says, made in the spring
when the cows are in the valley.
II. Formaggio Tenero: soft and richer, summer-made with milk
from lush mountain-grazing.
Notruschki (cheese bread)
Made with Tworog cheese and widely popular.
Nova Scotia Smoked
The name must mean that the cheese was smoked in the Nova Scotia manner, for it is smoked mostly in New York City, like sturgeon, to give the luxurious flavor.
This semisoft newcomer arrived about 1954 and is advertised as a brand-new variety. It is made in the Midwest and packed in small, heavily waxed portions to preserve all of its fine, full aroma and flavor.
A cheese all America can be proud of, whether it is an entirely new species or not.
Oaxaca see Asadero.
Oka, or La Trappe
Medium soft; aromatic; the Port-Salut made by Trappist monks in Canada after the secret method of the order that originated in France. See Trappe.
Old English Club
Not old, not English, and representing no club we know of.
Soft, piquant rival of Liederkranz.
Oléron Isle, Fromage d'Ile
A celebrated sheep cheese from this island of Oléron.
Ground olives mixed to taste with cream cheese. Olives rival pimientos for such mildly piquant blends that just suit the bland American taste. A more exciting olive cream may be made with Greek Calatma olives and Feta sheep cheese.
Soft sheep cheese sold in three forms:
I. Fresh; summer, white; cream cheese.
II. Olivet-Bleu—mold inoculated; half-ripened.
III. Olivet-Cendré, ripened in the ashes. Season, October to June.
Olmützer Quargel, also Olmützer Bierkäse
Soft; skim milk-soured; salty. The smallest of hand cheeses, only ½ of an inch thick by 1½ inches in diameter. Packed in kegs to ripen into beer cheese and keep the liquid contents of other kegs company. A dozen of these little ones are packed together in a box ready to drop into wine or beer drinks at home or at the bar.
Oloron, or Fromage de la Vallee d'ossour
In season from October to May.
Onion with garlic links
Processed and put up like frankfurters, in links.
Hard; sharp; tangy. From the home town of port wine.
A country cheese of the Orkney Islands where it is buried in the oat bin to ripen, and kept there between meals as well. Oatmeal and Scotch country cheese are natural affinities. Southey, Johnson and Boswell have all remarked the fine savor of such cheese with oatcakes.
Named after the Orléans district Soft; creamy; tangy.
Ossetin, Tuschninsk, or Kasach
Comes in two forms:
I. Soft and mild sheep or cow cheese ripened in brine for two months.
II. Hard, after ripening a year and more in brine. The type made of
sheep milk is the better.
Ostiepek, Oschtjepek, Oschtjpeka
Sheep in the Carpathian Mountains supply the herb-rich milk for this type, similar to Italian Caciocavallo.
New York State Cheddar of distinction.
Popular in France as Boule de Lille.
Oust, Fromage de
Of the Camembert family.
Semisoft to semihard, reddish-brown rind, reddish-yellow inside. Mild but pleasantly piquant It has been called Hungarian Tilsit.
Hard, mountain-sheep cheese of quality Cellar-ripened three months. Weight six to ten pounds.
An obsolescent type, now only of literary interest because of Jonathan Swift's little story around it, in the eighteenth century:
"An odd land of fellow, who when the cheese came upon the table, pretended to faint; so somebody said, Pray take away the cheese.'
"'No,' said I, 'pray take away the fool. Said I well?'
"To this Colonel Arwit rejoins: 'Faith, my lord, you served the coxcomb right enough; and therefore I wish we had a bit of your lordship's Oxfordshire cheese.'"
The Pabst beer people got this out during Prohibition, and although beer and cheese are brothers under their ferment, and Prohibition has long since been done away with, the relation of the processed paste to a natural cheese is still as distant as near beer from regular beer.
This corresponds to our process cheese and is named from the package or packet it comes in.
Italian-influenced Canton of Ticino. Soft. A copy of Gorgonzola. A Blue with a pleasant, aromatic flavor, and of further interest because in Switzerland, the motherland of cheese, it is an imitation of a foreign type.
A sheep-milk specialty made on the island of Pago in Dalmatia, in weights from ½ to eight pounds.
In season from November to May.
Fairly strong Limburger type.
Gorgonzola type with white curd but without blue veining.
Sheep. Caciocavallo type.
The grand mogul of all graters. Called "The hardest cheese in the world." It enlivens every course from onion soup to cheese straws with the demitasse, and puts spirit into the sparse Lenten menu as Pasta al Pesto, powdered Parmesan, garlic, olive oil and basil, pounded in a mortar with a pestle.
Passauer Rahmkäse, Crème de Passau
Noted Bavarian cream cheese, known in France as Crème de Passau.
The ball or grana of curd used in making Parmesan.
A "drawn" curd, the opposite of the little balls or grains into which Grana is chopped.(See Formaggi di Pasta Filata.)
Pasteurized Process Cheese Food
This is the ultimate desecration of natural fermented cheese. Had Pasteur but known what eventual harm his discovery would do to a world of cheese, he might have stayed his hand.
Soft, rich table cheese.
Similar to Gouda.
Italian cheese made from ewe's milk. Salted in brine. Granular.
Pelardon de Rioms
A goat cheese in season from May to November.
One of the international Caciocavallo family.
Penicillium Glaucum and Penicillium Album
Tiny mushroom spores of Penicillium Glaucum sprinkled in the curd destined to become Roquefort, sprout and grow into "blue" veins that impart the characteristic flavor. In twelve to fifteen days a second spore develops on the surface, snow-white Penicillium Album.
Mellow sheep cheese packed in the skin of sheep or lamb.
Pennsylvania Hand Cheese
This German original has been made by the Pennsylvania Dutch ever since they arrived from the old country. Also Pennsylvania pot, or cooked.
Cow milk imitation Roquefort, inoculated with Penicillium Roqueforti and ripened in "caverns where nature has duplicated the ideal condition of the cheese-curing caverns of France." So any failure of Penroque to rival real Roquefort is more likely to be the fault of mother cow than mother nature.
Hard; stinging, with whole black peppers that make the lips burn. Fine for fire-eaters.
An American imitation is made in Northern Michigan.
Persillé de Savoie
In season from May to January, flavored with parsley in a manner similar to that of sage in Vermont Cheddar.
Goat or cow milk mixed together, with yeast of dried cheese added, plus salt and pepper, olive oil, brandy and absinthe.
Fresh, unripened Ancien Impérial.
Imitation Gruyère, pasteurized, processed and made almost unrecognizable and inedible. Six tin-foil wedges to a box; also packaged with a couple of crackers for bars, one wedge for fifteen cents, where free lunch is forbidden. This is a fair sample of one of several foreign imitations that are actually worse than we can do at home.
A pet name for Coulommiers.
Fresh, unsalted cream cheese. The same as Neufchâtel and similar to Coulommiers. It comes in two sizes:
Gros—a largest cylinder
Demi—a small one
Keats called this "the creamy curd," and another writer has praised its "La Fontaine-like simplicity." Whether made in Normandy, Switzerland, or Petropolis, Brazil, by early Swiss settlers, it is ideal with honey.
"Little Cowboy," an appropriate name for a small cow's-milk cheese.
Lower Burgundy, France
Soft; sheep; white, small, tangy. Other notable Petits also beginning with B are Banons and Bressans.
Petits Fromages de Chasteaux, les
Small, sheep cream cheeses from Lower Limousin.
Petits Fromages de Chèvre
Little cheeses from little goats grazing on the little mountains of Provence.
Petits Pots de Caillé de Poitiers
Clotted milk in small pots.
Emmentaler type, although differing in its method of making with fresh skim milk. It is named for Pfister Huber who was the first to manufacture it, in Chain.
An excellent cream cheese that has been standard for seventy years. Made in New York State in spite of its name.
Handy-size picnic packing of mild American Cheddar. Swiss has long been called picnic cheese in America, its home away from home.
Picodon de Dieule Fit
In season from May to December.
Pie, Fromage à la
Another name for Fromage Blanc or Farm; soft, creamy cottage-cheese type.
An apt American name for any round store cheese that can be cut in wedges like a pie. Perfect with apple or mince or any other pie. And by the way, in these days when natural cheese is getting harder to find, any piece of American Cheddar cut in pie wedges before being wrapped in cellophane is apt to be the real thing—if it has the rind on. The wedge shape is used, however, without any rind, to make processed pastes pass for "natural" even without that identifying word, and with misleading labels such as old, sharp Cheddar and "aged nine months." That's long enough to make a baby, but not a "natural" out of a processed "Cheddar."
Because pimiento is the blandest of peppers, it just suits our bland national taste, especially when mixed with Neufchâtel, cream, club or cottage. The best is homemade, of course, with honest, snappy old Cheddar mashed and mixed to taste, with the mild Spanish pepper that equals the Spanish olive as a partner in such spreads.
Pimp see Mainzer Hand Cheese.
Whole milk, either cow's or a mixture of goat's and cow's.
Borden brand of Cheddar. Also Pippen Roll
Pithiviers au Foin
Orléans variety ripened on hay from October to May.
Goat's milker named from its Poitou district.
All year. Double cream; unsalted.
Semifirm; delicate; piquant
Similar to Roquefort Ripened at a very low temperature.
Characterized as a classic French fromage "with Huge-like Romanticism." (See Chapter 3.) An imported brand is called "The Inquisitive Cow."
Semisoft; mellow; New York Stater of distinctive flavor. Sold in two-pound packs, to be kept four or five hours at room temperature before serving.
Port-Salut, Port du Salut
Port, Blue Links
"Blue" flavored with red port and put up in pseudo-sausage links.
Cottage cheese with a dry curd, not creamed. An old English favorite for fruited cheese cakes with perfumed plums, lemons, almonds and macaroons. In Ireland it was used in connection with the sheep-shearing ceremonies, although itself a common cow curd. Pennsylvania pot cheese is cooked.
Germany and U.S.A.
Made in Thuringia from sour cow milk with sheep or goat sometimes added. "The potatoes are boiled and grated or mashed. One part of the potato is thoroughly mixed or kneaded with two or three parts of die curd. In the better cheese three parts of potatoes are mixed with two of curd. During the mixing, salt and sometimes caraway seed are added. The cheese is allowed to stand for from two to four days while a fermentation takes place. After this the curd is sometimes covered with beer or cream and is finally placed in tubs and allowed to ripen for fourteen days. A variety of this cheese is made in the U.S. It is probable, however, that it is not allowed to ripen for quite so long a period as the potato cheese of Europe. In all other essentials it appears to be the same." From U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 608.
Italian Potato cheese is enlivened with black pepper, like Pepato, only not so stony hard.
Pots de Crème St. Gervais
St. Gervais-sur-mer, France
The celebrated cream that rivals English Devonshire and is eaten both as a sweet and as a fresh cheese.
A celebrated cylindrical cheese made in Indre. Season from May to December.
A fresh cow-milk cheese of Gascony.
Semihard, very yellow imitation of the Argentine imitation of Holland Dutch. Standard Brazilian dessert with guava or quince paste. Named not from "dish" but the River Plate district of the Argentine from whence it was borrowed long ago.
Aromatic and sharp, Limburger type, from skim milk. Named for its home valley.
Prestost or Saaland Flarr
Similar to Gouda, but unique—the curd being mixed with whiskey, packed in a basket, salted and cellared, wrapped in a cloth changed daily; and on the third day finally washed with whiskey.
Minas Geraes, Brazil
Semihard white brand of Minas cheese high quality, with a springlike fragrance.
Soft; whey; unripened; light brown; mild flavor.
A blend of French Brie and Petit Gruyère, mild table cheese imitate in Norway, sold in small packages. Danish Appetitost is similar, but with caraway added.
From here around the world. Natural cheese melted and modified by emulsification with a harmless agent and thus changed into a plastic mass.
Small soft-cream cheese.
A water-buffalo variety. This type of milk makes a good beginning for a fine cheese, no matter how it is made.
Port-Salut from the Trappist monastery at Briquebec.
Provole, Provolone, Provolocine, Provoloncinni, Provoletti, and Provolino
All are types, shapes and sizes of Italy's most widely known and appreciated cheese. It is almost as widely but badly imitated in the U.S.A., where the final "e" and "i" are interchangeable.
Cured in string nets that stay on permanently to hang decoratively in the home kitchen or dining room. Like straw Chianti bottles, Provolones weigh from bocconi (mouthful), about one pound, to two to four pounds. There are three-to five-pound Provoletti, and upward with huge Salamis and Giants. Small ones come ball, pear, apple, and all sorts of decorative shapes, big ones become monumental sculptures that are works of art to compare with butter and soap modeling.
P'teux, le, or Fromage Cuit
Cooked cheese worked with white wine instead of milk, and potted.
"The most candidly named cheese in existence." In season from November to June.
Pultost or Knaost
Sour milk with some buttermilk, farm made in mountains.
Semihard, Limburger-Romadur type. Full flavor, high scent.
Pyrenees, Fromage des
A fine mountain variety.