Cheese Types A-E
Soft; creamy mellow.
Bohemia (Made near Carlsbad)
Hard; sheep; distinctive, with a savory smack all its own.
Absinthe see Petafina.
Acidophilus see Saint-Ivel.
November to May—winter-made and eaten.
Affiné, Carré see Ancien Impérial.
Affumicata, Mozzarella see Mozzarella.
Agricultural school cheeses see College-educated.
Aiguilles, Fromage d'
Named "Cheese of the Needles" from the sharp Alpine peaks of the district where it is made.
Aizy, Cendrée d' see Cendrée.
Semihard; piquant; nut-flavor. Named after the chief city of French Corsica where a cheese-lover, Napoleon, was born.
à la Crème see Fromage, Fromage Blanc, Chevretons.
à la Main see Vacherin.
à la Pie see Fromage.
à la Rachette see Bagnes.
Semihard; made of both goat and cow milk; white, mellow, pleasant-tasting table cheese.
Rich with the flavor of cuds of green herbs chewed into creamy milk that makes tasty curds. Made in the fertile Swiss Valley of Albula whose proud name it bears.
The French, who are fond of this special product of the very special breed of cattle named after the Channel Island of Alderney, translate it phonetically—Fromage d'Aurigny.
Called in full Queijo de Alemtejo, cheese of Alemtejo, in the same way that so many French cheeses carry along the fromage title. Soft; sheep and sometimes goat or cow; in cylinders of three sizes, weighing respectively about two ounces, one pound, and four pounds. The smaller sizes are the ones most often made with mixed goat and sheep milk. The method of curdling without the usual animal rennet is interesting and unusual. The milk is warmed and curdled with vegetable rennet made from the flowers of a local thistle, or cardoon, which is used in two other Portuguese cheeses—Queijo da Cardiga and Queijo da Serra da Estrella—and probably in many others not known beyond their locale. In France la Caillebotte is distinguished for being clabbered with chardonnette, wild artichoke seed. In Portugal, where there isn't so much separating of the sheep from the goats, it takes several weeks for Alemtejos to ripen, depending on the lactic content and difference in sizes.
Alfalfa see Sage.
Allgäuer Bergkäse, Allgäuer Rundkäse, or Allgäuer Emmentaler
Hard; Emmentaler type. The small district of Allgäu names a mountain of cheeses almost as fabulous as our "Rock-candy Mountain." There are two principal kinds, vintage Allgäuer Bergkäse and soft Allgäuer Rahmkäse, described below. This celebrated cheese section runs through rich pasture lands right down and into the Swiss Valley of the Emme that gives the name Emmentaler to one of the world's greatest. So it is no wonder that Allgäuer Bergkäse can compete with the best Swiss. Before the Russian revolution, in fact, all vintage cheeses of Allgäu were bought up by wealthy Russian noblemen and kept in their home caves in separate compartments for each year, as far back as the early 1900's. As with fine vintage wines, the price of the great years went up steadily. Such cheeses were shipped to their Russian owners only when the chief cheese-pluggers of Allgäu found they had reached their prime.
Full cream, similar to Romadur and Limburger, but milder than both. This sets a high grade for similar cheeses made in the Bavarian mountains, in monasteries such as Andechs. It goes exquisitely with the rich dark Bavarian beer. Some of it is as slippery as the stronger, smellier Bierkäse, or the old-time Slipcote of England. Like so many North Europeans, it is often flavored with caraway. Although entirely different from its big brother, vintage Bergkäse, Rahmkäse can stand proudly at its side as one of the finest cheeses in Germany.
Alpe see Fiore di Alpe.
Hard and peppery, like its name. Similar to Pepato (see).
Similar to Bel Paese.
A smoked cheese that tastes, smells and inhales like whatever fish it was smoked with. The French Alps has a different Alpestre; Italy spells hers Alpestro.
Alpestre, Alpin, or Fromage de Briançon
Hard; goat; dry; small; lightly salted. Made at Briançon and Gap.
Semisoft; goat; dry; lightly salted.
Alpin or Clérimbert
The milk is coagulated with rennet at 80° F. in two hours. The curd is dipped into molds three to four inches in diameter and two and a half inches in height, allowed to drain, turned several times for one day only, then salted and ripened one to two weeks.
Altenburg, or Altenburger Ziegenkäse
Soft; goat; small and flat—one to two inches thick, eight inches in diameter, weight two pounds.
Alt Kuhkäse Old Cow Cheese
Hard; well-aged, as its simple name suggests.
Altsohl see Brinza.
Ambert, or Fourme d'Ambert
Limagne, Auvergne, France
A kind of Cheddar made from November to May and belonging to the Cantal—Fourme-La Tome tribe.
American, American Cheddar
Described under their home states and distinctive names are a dozen fine American Cheddars, such as Coon, Wiscon sin, Herkimer County and Tillamook, to name only a few. They come in as many different shapes, with traditional names such as Daisies, Flats, Longhorns, Midgets, Picnics, Prints and Twins. The ones simply called Cheddars weigh about sixty pounds. All are made and pressed and ripened in about the same way, although they differ greatly in flavor and quality. They are ripened anywhere from two months to two years and become sharper, richer and more flavorsome, as well as more expensive, with the passing of time.
Hard; brittle; sharp.
Winter cheese, October to May.
American processed cheese that can be mixed up with anchovies or any fish from whitebait to whale, made like a sausage and sold in handy links.
Soft; fresh cream; white, mellow and creamy like Neufchâtel and made in the same way. Tiny bricks packaged in tin foil, two inches square, one-half inch thick, weighing three ounces. Eaten both fresh and when ripe. It is also called Carré and has separate names for the new and the old: (a) Petit Carré when newly made; (b) Carré Affiné, when it has reached a ripe old age, which doesn't take long—about the same time as Neufchâtel.
Ancona see Pecorino.
A cow's-milker made in the Andes near Mérida. It is formed into rough cubes and wrapped in the pungent, aromatic leaves of Frailejón Lanudo (Espeletia Schultzii) which imparts to it a characteristic flavor. (Description given in Buen Provecho! by Dorothy Kamen-Kaye.)
A lusty Allgäuer type. Monk-made on the monastery hill at Andechs on Ammersee. A superb snack with equally monkish dark beer, black bread and blacker radishes, served by the brothers in dark brown robes.
Semihard; nut-flavored; named after its place of origin.
Switzerland, Bavaria and Baden
Semisoft Emmentaler type made in a small twenty-pound wheel—a pony-cart wheel in comparison to the big Swiss. There are two qualities: (a) Common, made of skim milk and cured in brine for a year; (b) Festive, full milk, steeped in brine with wine, plus white wine lees and pepper. The only cheese we know of that is ripened with lees of wine.
Semisoft; sour milk; nutlike flavor. It's an appetizer that lives up to its name, eaten fresh on the spot, from the loose bottom pans in which it is made.
Sour buttermilk, similar to Primula, with caraway seeds added for snap. Imitated in U.S.A.
A small New York State Cheddar put up in the form of a red-cheeked apple for New York City trade. Inspired by the pear-shaped Provolone and Baby Gouda, no doubt.
Semihard; sour milk; yellow; mellow and creamy. Made in mountains between Bohemia and Silesia.
Argentina is specially noted for fine reproductions of classical Italian hard-grating cheeses such as Parmesan and Romano, rich and fruity because of the lush pampas-grass feeding.
Soft; whole sour sheep milk; a hand cheese made by stirring cold, sour buttermilk or whey into heated milk, pressing in forms and ripening in a warm place. Similar to Hand cheese.
Arnauten see Travnik.
Arras, Coeurs d' see Coeurs.
Made only in winter, November to May. Since gourmet products of the same province often have a special affinity, Arrigny and champagne are specially well suited to one another.
Artichoke, Cardoon or Thistle for Rennet see Caillebotte.
Artificial Dessert Cheese
In the lavish days of olde England Artificial Dessert Cheese was made by mixing one quart of cream with two of milk and spiking it with powdered cinnamon, nutmeg and mace. Four beaten eggs were then stirred in with one-half cup of white vinegar and the mixture boiled to a curd. It was then poured into a cheesecloth and hung up to drain six to eight hours. When taken out of the cloth it was further flavored with rose water, sweetened with castor sugar, left to ripen for an hour or two and finally served up with more cream.
Asadero, or Oaxaca
Jalisco and Oaxaca, Mexico
White; whole-milk. Curd is heated, and hot curd is cut and braided or kneaded into loaves from eight ounces to eleven pounds in weight Asadero means "suitable for roasting."
Made only in the winter season, October to May.
Asiago I, II and III
Sometimes classed as medium and mild, depending mostly on age. Loaves weigh about eighteen pounds each and look like American Cheddar but have a taste all their own.
I. Mild, nutty and sharp, used for table slicing and eating.
II. Medium, semihard and tangy, also used for slicing until nine months old.
III. Hard, old, dry, sharp, brittle. When over nine months old, it's fine for grating.
Asin, or Water cheese
Sour-milk; washed-curd; whitish; soft; buttery. Made mostly in spring and eaten in summer and autumn. Dessert cheese, frequently eaten with honey and fruit.
see Tome de Savoie.
Au Foin and de Foin
A style of ripening "on the hay." See Pithiviers au Foin and Fromage de Foin.
Valée d'Auge, Normandy, France
Soft; tangy; piquant Pont l'Evêque type.
d'Auray see Sainte-Anne.
Aurigny, Fromage d' see Alderney.
Aurillac see Bleu d'Auvergne.
Aurore and Triple Aurore
Made and eaten all year.
Australian and New Zealand
Australia and New Zealand
Enough cheese is produced for local consumption, chiefly Cheddar; some Gruyère, but unfortunately mostly processed.
Produced and eaten all year. Fromage de Vache is another name for it and this is of special interest in a province where the chief competitors are made of goat's milk.
Auvergne, Bleu d' see Bleu.
Au Vin Blanc, Confits see Epoisses.
Avesnes, Boulette d' see Boulette.
Not eaten during July, August or September. Season, October to June.
Azeitão, Queijo do
Soft, sheep, sapid and extremely oily as the superlative ão implies. There are no finer, fatter cheeses in the world than those made of rich sheep milk in the mountains of Portugal and named for them.
Soft; mellow, zestful and as oily as it is named.
Mild and mellow mountain product.
Resembles Limburger, but smaller, and translates Brick, from the shape. It is aromatic and piquant and not very much like the U.S. Brick.
Bagnes, or Fromage à la Raclette
Not only hard but very hard, named from racler, French for "scrape." A thick, one-half-inch slice is cut across the whole cheese and toasted until runny. It is then scraped off the pan it's toasted in with a flexible knife, spread on bread and eaten like an open-faced Welsh Rabbit sandwich.
Bagozzo, Grana Bagozzo, Bresciano
Hard; yellow; sharp. Surface often colored red. Parmesan type.
Skim milk, similar to cottage cheese, but softer and finer grained. Used in making bakery products such as cheese cake, pie, and pastries, but may also be eaten like creamed cottage cheese.
Made from thick sour milk in Pennsylvania in the style of the original Pennsylvania Dutch settlers.
Ballakäse or Womelsdorf
Similar to Ball.
Balls, Dutch Red
English name for Edam.
Soft, rich cylinder about one inch thick made in the town of Banbury, famous for its spicy, citrus-peel buns and its equestrienne. Banbury cheese with Banbury buns made a sensational snack in the early nineteenth century, but both are getting scarce today.
White and sweet.
Port-Salut type from its Trappist monastery.
Banon, or les Petits Banons
Small, dried, sheep-milker, made in the foothills of the Alps and exported through Marseilles in season, May to November. This sprightly summer cheese is generously sprinkled with the local brandy and festively wrapped in fresh green leaves.
Any saloon Cheddar, formerly served on every free-lunch counter in the U.S. Before Prohibition, free-lunch cheese was the backbone of America's cheese industry.
Minas Geraes, Brazil
Hard, white, sometimes chalky. Named from its home city in the leading cheese state of Brazil.
Barberey, or Fromage de Troyes
Soft, creamy and smooth, resembling Camembert, five to six inches in diameter and 1¼ inches thick. Named from its home town, Barberey, near Troyes, whose name it also bears. Fresh, warm milk is coagulated by rennet in four hours. Uncut curd then goes into a wooden mold with a perforated bottom, to drain three hours, before being finished off in an earthenware mold. The cheeses are salted, dried and ripened three weeks in a cave. The season is from November to May and when made in summer they are often sold fresh.
A natural product, mild and mellow.
Bassillac see Bleu.
Gently made, lightly salted, drained on a straw mat in the historic resort town of Bath. Ripened in two weeks and eaten only when covered with a refined fuzzy mold that's also eminently edible. It is the most delicate of English-speaking cheeses.
Switzerland, St. Gothard Alps, northern Italy, and western Austria
An Emmentaler made small where milk is not plentiful. The "wheel" is only sixteen inches in diameter and four inches high, weighing forty to eighty pounds. The cooking of the curd is done at a little lower temperature than Emmentaler, it ripens more rapidly—in four months — and is somewhat softer, but has the same holes and creamy though sharp, full nutty flavor.
Bauden (see also Koppen)
Germany, Austria, Bohemia and Silesia
Semisoft, sour milk, hand type, made in herders' mountain huts in about the same way as Harzkäse, though it is bigger. In two forms, one cup shape (called Koppen), the other a cylinder. Strong and aromatic, whether made with or without caraway.
Bavarian Beer cheese see Bayrischer Bierkäse.
Very soft; smooth and creamy. Made in the Bavarian mountains. Especially good with sweet wines and sweet sauces.
Bavarois à la Vanille see Fromage Bavarois.
Bayonne see Fromage de Bayonne.
Bavarian beer cheese from the Tyrol is made not only to eat with beer, but to dunk in it.
Beads of cheese
Beads of hard cheese, two inches in diameter, are strung like a necklace of cowrie shells or a rosary, fifty to a hundred on a string. Also see Money Made of Cheese.
Beagues see Tome de Savoie.
Bean Cake, Tao-foo, or Tofu
China, Japan, the Orient
Soy bean cheese imported from Shanghai and other oriental ports, and also imitated in every Chinatown around the world. Made from the milk of beans and curdled with its own vegetable rennet.
Beaujolais see Chevretons.
Beaumont, or Tome de Beaumont
A more or less successful imitation of Trappist Tamie, a trade-secret triumph of Savoy. At its best from October to June.
Beaupré de Roybon
A winter specialty made from November to April.
A good mountain cheese from goat milk.
While our beer cheese came from Germany and the word is merely a translation of Bierkäse, we use it chiefly for a type of strong Limburger made mostly in Milwaukee. This fine, aromatic cheese is considered by many as the very best to eat while drinking beer. But in Germany Bierkäse is more apt to be dissolved in a glass or stein of beer, much as we mix malted powder in milk, and drunk with it, rather than eaten.
This sounds like another beer cheese, but it's only a mild Cheddar named after its hometown in Dorsetshire.
A curiosity of the old days. "The first milk after a calving, boiled or baked to a thick consistency, the result somewhat resembling new-made cheese, though this is clearly not a true cheese." (MacNeill)
Hard; goat; creamy dessert cheese.
The milk, which has been allowed to curdle spontaneously, is skimmed and allowed to drain. When dry it is thoroughly kneaded by hand and is allowed to undergo fermentation, which takes ordinarily from ten to fourteen days in winter and six to eight days in summer. When the fermentation is complete, cream and salt are added and the mixture is heated slowly and stirred until homogeneous, when it is put into molds and allowed to ripen for eight days longer. A cheese ordinarily weighs about three-and-a-half pounds. It is not essentially different from other forms of cooked cheese.
Beli Sir see Domaci.
Bellelay, Tête de Moine, or Monk's Head
Soft, buttery, semisharp spread. Sweet milk is coagulated with rennet in twenty to thirty minutes, the curd cut fairly fine and cooked not so firm as Emmentaler, but firmer than Limburger. After being pressed, the cheeses are wrapped in bark for a couple of weeks until they can stand alone. Since no eyes are desired in the cheeses, they are ripened in a moist cellar at a lowish temperature. They take a year to ripen and will keep three or four years. The diameter is seven inches, the weight nine to fifteen pounds. The monk's head after cutting is kept wrapped in a napkin soaked in white wine and the soft, creamy spread is scraped out to "butter" bread and snacks that go with more white wine. Such combinations of old wine and old cheese suggest monkish influence, which began here in the fifteenth century with the jolly friars of the Canton of Bern. There it is still made exclusively and not exported, for there's never quite enough to go around.
Mel Fino, a blend, and Bel Paese types—French Boudanne and German Saint Stefano. The American imitation is not nearly so good as the Italian original.
A play on the Bel Paese name and fame. Weight one pound and diminutive in every other way.
Bergkäse see Allgäuer.
Semihard, fat, resembles Dutch Gouda. Tangy, pleasant taste. Gets sharper with age, as they all do. Molded in cylinders of fifteen to forty pounds. Popular in Sweden since the eighteenth century.
Named after its home town in Gloucester, England.
Cow cheese, pet-named turkey cock cheese by Berlin students. Typical German hand cheese, soft; aromatic with caraway seeds, and that's about the only difference between it and Alt Kuhkäse, without caraway.
Bernarde, Formagelle Bernarde
Cow's whole milk, to which about 10% of goat's milk is added for flavor. Cured for two months.
Made of skim milk.
Berry Rennet see Withania.
Soft, mild, and creamy.
Cream cheeses, small, flat, round. Excellent munching.
There are several of these unique beer cheeses that are actually dissolved in a stein of beer and drunk down with it in the Bierstubes, notably Bayrischer, Dresdener, and Olmützer. Semisoft; aromatic; sharp. Well imitated in echt Deutsche American spots such as Milwaukee and Hoboken.
Goat; white; mildly salt. Imitated in a process spread in 4¼-ounce package.
Exceptionally fine Swiss from the great cheese canton of Wallis.
Hard Emmentaler type made in the Valtellina. It is really two cheeses in one. When eaten fresh, it is smooth, sapid, big-eyed Swiss. When eaten after two years of ripening, it is very hard and sharp and has small eyes.
Blanc à la crème see Fromage Blanc.
Blanc see Fromage Blanc I and II.
Brittle; blue-veined; smooth; biting.
Bleu d'Auvergne or Fromage Bleu
Hard; sheep or mixed sheep, goat or cow; from Pontgibaud and Laqueuille ripening caves. Similar to better-known Cantal of the same province. Akin to Roquefort and Stilton, and to Bleu de Laqueuille.
Bleu de Bassillac
Blue mold of Roquefort type that's prime from November to May.
Bleu de Laqueuille
Similar to Bleu d'Auvergne, but with a different savor. Named for its originator, Antoine Roussel-Laqueuille, who first made it a century ago, in 1854.
Bleu de Limousin, Fromage
Practically the same as Bleu de Bassillac, from Lower Limousin.
Bleu de Salers
A variety of Bleu d'Auvergne from the same province distinguished for its blues that are green. With the majority, this is at its best only in the winter months, from November to May.
Bleu, Fromage see Bleu d'Auvergne.
Bleu-Olivet see Olivet.
The name for cheeses lacking the usual holes of the type they belong to, such as blind Swiss.
U.S. imitation of the classical Dutch cheese named after the town of Edam.
The name is self-explanatory and suggests a well-colored meerschaum.
Bloder, or Schlicker Milch
Blue Cheddar see Cheshire-Stilton.
Blue, Danish see Danish Blue.
Blue Dorset see Dorset.
Blue, Jura see Jura Bleu and Septmoncel.
Blue, and Blue with Port Links
One of the modern American process sausages.
Blue, Minnesota see Minnesota.
A process product.
Blue Vinny, Blue Vinid, Blue-veined Dorset, or Double Dorset
A unique Blue that actually isn't green-veined. Farmers make it for private consumption, because it dries up too easily to market. An epicurean esoteric match for Truckles No. 1 of Wiltshire. It comes in a flat form, chalk-white, crumbly and sharply flavored, with a "royal Blue" vein running right through horizontally. The Vinny mold, from which it was named, is different from all other cheese molds and has a different action.
Sharp and smoky specialty.
Bocconi Provoloni see Provolone.
Boîte see Fromage de Boîte.
Hard; goat; dry; sharp. Good to crunch with a Bombay Duck in place of a cracker.
Bondes see Bondon de Neufchâtel.
Bondon de Neufchâtel, or Bondes
Nicknamed Bonde à tout bien, from resemblance to the bung in a barrel of Neuchâtel wine. Soft, small loaf rolls, fresh and mild. Similar to Gournay, but sweeter because of 2% added sugar.
Bondon de Rouen
A fresh Neufchâtel, similar to Petit Suisse, but slightly salted, to last up to ten days.
When caraway seed is added this is called Kommenost, spelled Kuminost in Norway.
Imitation of Scandinavian cheese, with small production in Wisconsin.
Romantically named "the penitent thief."
A full line of processed and naturals, of which Liederkranz is the leader.
A small water-buffalo cheese.
A winter product, December, January, February and March only.
Whole or skimmed cow's milk, ripens in two to three months.
Soft, fresh, smooth, creamy, mild child of the Neufchâtel family.
Bougon Lamothe see Lamothe.
One of this most prolific province's thirty different notables. In season October to May.
Boule de Lille
Name given to Belgian Oude Kaas by the French who enjoy it.
Boulette d'Avesnes, or Boulette de Cambrai
Made from November to May, eaten all year.
Type of fresh Neufchâtel made in France. Perishable and consumed locally.
Bourgognes see Petits Bourgognes.
Similar to U.S. Brick. It comes in two styles; firm, and soft:
I. Also known as Schachtelkäse, Boxed Cheese; and Hohenheim, where it is made. A rather unimportant variety. Made in a copper kettle, with partially skim milk, colored with saffron and spiked with caraway, a handful to every two hundred pounds. Salted and ripened for three months and shipped in wooden boxes.
II. Also known by names of localities where made: Hohenburg, Mondess and Weihenstephan. Made of whole milk. Mild but piquant.
Bra No. I
Hard, round form, twelve inches in diameter, three inches high, weight twelve pounds. A somewhat romantic cheese, made by nomads who wander with their herds from pasture to pasture in the region of Bra.
Bra No. II
Turin and Cuneo, Italy
Soft, creamy, small, round and mild although cured in brine.
Brand or Brandkäse
Soft, sour-milk hand cheese, weighing one-third of a pound. The curd is cooked at a high temperature, then salted and set to ferment for a day. Butter is then mixed into it before pressing into small bricks. After drying it is put in used beer kegs to ripen and is frequently moistened with beer while curing.
Brandy see Caledonian, Cream.
Branja de Brailia
Hard; sheep; extra salty because always kept in brine.
Branja de Cosulet
Described by Richard Wyndham in Wine and Food (Winter, 1937): A creamy sheep's cheese which is encased in pine bark. My only criticism of this most excellent cheese is that the center must always remain a gastronomical second best. It is no more interesting than a good English Cheddar, while the outer crust has a scented, resinous flavor which must be unique among cheeses.
Strong; specially made to roast in slices over coal. Fine, grilled on toast.
Breakfast, Frühstück, Lunch, Delikat, and other names
Soft and delicate, but with a strong tang. Small round, for spreading. Lauterbach is a well-known breakfast cheese in Germany, while in Switzerland Emmentaler is eaten at all three meals.
Like Borden and other leading American cheesemongers and manufacturers, Breakstone offer a full line, of which their cream cheese is an American product to be proud of.
A proud Prussian dessert cheese.
Bressans see les Petits.
Bretagne see Montauban.
Briançon see Alpin.
A traditional Wiltshire product since early in the eighteenth century. Made with fresh milk and some cream, to ripen for one year before "it's fit to eat." The French call it Briqueton.
Semisoft, sour sheep, sometimes mixed with sugar and rum and made into small luscious cakes.
Brie Cendré and Coulommiers.
The name of imitation Brie or Brie type made in all parts of France. Often it is dry, chalky, and far inferior to the finest Brie véritable that is still made best in its original home, formerly called La Brie, now Seine et Marne, or Ile-de-France.
see Nivernais Decize, Le Mont d'Or, and Ile-de-France.
Brie de Meaux
This genuine Brie from the Meaux region has an excellent reputation for high quality. It is made only from November to May.
Brie de Melun
This Brie véritable is made not only in the seasonal months, from November to May, but practically all the year around. It is not always prime. Summer Brie, called Maigre, is notably poor and thin. Spring Brie is merely Migras, half-fat, as against the fat autumn Gras that ripens until May.
Soft, and available all year. Although the author of Physiologie du Goût was not noted as a caseophile and wrote little on the subject beyond Le Fondue this savory Normandy produce is named in his everlasting praise.
Semisoft, sheep, done in brine.
Our imitation of this creamy sort of fresh, white Roquefort is as popular in foreign colonies in America as back in its Hungarian and Greek homelands. On New York's East Side several stores advertise "Brindza fresh daily," with an extra "d" crowded into the original Brinza.
Brine see Italian Bra, Caucasian Ekiwani, Brina Dubreala, Briney.
Briney, or Brined
Semisoft, salty, sharp. So-called from being processed in brine. Turkish Tullum Penney is of the same salt-soaked type.
Brinza, or Brinsen
Hungary, Rumania, Carpathian Mountains
Goes by many local names: Altsohl, Klencz, Landoch, Liptauer, Neusohl, Siebenburgen and Zips. Soft, sheep milk or sheep and goat; crumbly, sharp and biting, but creamy. Made in small lots and cured in a tub with beech shavings. Ftinoporino is its opposite number in Macedonia.
Brioler see Westphalia.
Briquebec see Providence
The French name for English Wiltshire Brickbat, one of the very few cheeses imported into France. Known in France in the eighteenth century, it may have influenced the making of Trappist Port-Salut at the Bricquebec Monastery in Manche.
Brittle see Greek Cashera, Italian Ricotta, Turkish Rarush Durmar, and U.S. Hopi.
Imitation Reblochon made in the same Savoy province.
Broccio, or le Brocconis
Soft, sour sheep milk or goat, like Bricotta and a first cousin to Italian Chiavari. Cream white, slightly salty; eaten fresh in Paris, where it is as popular as on its home island. Sometimes salted and half-dried, or made into little cakes with rum and sugar. Made and eaten all year.
Hard, flat, nutty.
Brousses de la Vézubie, les
Small; sheep; long narrow bar shape, served either with powdered sugar or salt, pepper and chopped chives. Made in Vézubie.
Brussels or Bruxelles
Soft, washed skim milk, fermented, semisharp, from Louvain and Hal districts.
Soft, fresh, creamy and mellow, a favorite at home in Budapest and abroad in Vienna.
A specialty in Dusseldorf.
Semihard; mellow; tangy.
Named after the province, not the wine, but they go wonderfully together.
Semihard; yellow; tangy.
Butter and Cheese
"Butter," Serbian see Kajmar.
U.S. & Europe
Resembles cottage cheese, but of finer grain.
Small; goat; from Maurs.
So much like the Cabreçon they might be called sister nannies under the rind.
Cachet d'Entrechaux, le, or Fromage Fort du Ventoux
Provence Mountains, France
Semihard; sheep; mixed with brandy, dry white wine and sundry seasonings. Well marinated and extremely strong. Season May to November.
"Horse Cheese." The ubiquitous cheese of classical greats, imitated all around the world and back to Italy again.
Sicily, also in U.S.A.
Essentially a pressed Provolone. Usually from cow's whole milk, but sometimes from goat's milk or a mixture of the two. Weight between 17½ and 26 pounds. Used for both table cheese and grating.
Cacio Fiore, or Caciotta
Soft as butter; sheep; in four-pound square frames; sweetish; eaten fresh.
Cacio Pecorino Romano see Pecorino.
Cacio Romano see Chiavari.
Wales and England—Devon, Dorset, Somerset & Wilshire
Semihard; whole fresh milk; takes three weeks to ripen. Also sold "green," young and innocent, at the age of ten to eleven days when weighing about that many pounds. Since it has little keeping qualities it should be eaten quickly. Welsh miners eat a lot of it, think it specially suited to their needs, because it is easily digested and does not produce so much heat in the body as long-keeping cheeses.
France—Anjou, Poitou, Saintonge & Vendée
Soft, creamy, sweetened fresh or sour milk clabbered with chardonnette, wild artichoke seed, over slow fire. Cut in lozenges and served cold not two hours after cooking. Smooth, mellow and aromatic. A high type of this unusual cheese is Jonchée (see). Other cheeses are made with vegetable rennet, some from similar thistle or cardoon juice, especially in Portugal.
Caille de Poitiers see Petits pots.
Caille de Habas
Clabbered or clotted sheep milk.
A notable goat cheese made in Cubjac.
The Calabrians make good sheep cheese, such as this and Caciocavallo.
Hard; ewe's milk. Suitable for grating.
More of a dessert than a true cheese. We read in Scotland's Inner Man: "A sort of fresh cream cheese, flavored with chopped orange marmalade, sugar brandy and lemon juice. It is whisked for about half an hour. Otherwise, if put into a freezer, it would be good ice-pudding."
Medium-hard; tangy. Perfect with Calvados applejack from the same province.
Similar to Gorgonzola, made in Bergamo.
Cambrai see Boulette.
Cambridge, or York
Soft; fresh; creamy; tangy. The curd is quickly made in one hour and dipped into molds without cutting to ripen for eating in thirty hours.
Germany, U.S. & elsewhere
A West German imitation that comes in a cute little heart-shaped box which nevertheless doesn't make it any more like the Camembert véritable of Normandy.
Semisoft; open-textured, resembling Monterey. Drained curd is pressed in hoops, cheese is salted in brine for thirty hours, then coated with paraffin and cured for one to three months in humid room at 50° to 60° F.
see Cheddar Club.
Cancoillotte, Cancaillotte, Canquoillotte, Quincoillotte, Cancoiade, Fromagère, Tempête and "Purée" de fromage tres fort
Soft; sour milk; sharp and aromatic; with added eggs and butter and sometimes brandy or dry white wine. Sold in attractive small molds and pots. Other sharp seasonings besides the brandy or wine make this one of the strongest of French strong cheeses, similar to Fromage Fort.
Hard; mixed goat and sheep; yellow and strong. Takes one year to mature and is very popular both in Sicily where it is made to perfection and in Southern Colorado where it is imitated by and for Italian settlers.
Cantal, Fromage de Cantal, Auvergne or Auvergne Bleu; also Fourme and La Tome.
Semihard; smooth; mellow; a kind of Cheddar, lightly colored lemon; yellow; strong, sharp taste but hardly any smell. Forty to a hundred-twenty pound cylinders. The rich milk from highland pastures is more or less skimmed and, being a very old variety, it is still made most primitively. Cured six weeks or six months, and when very old it's very hard and very sharp. A Cantal type is Laguiole or Guiole.
Made from milk of goats that still overrun the original Goat Island, and tangy as a buck.
Caprino (Little Goat)
Semihard; goat; sharp; table cheese.
This is just one imitation of dozens of German caraway-seeded cheeses that roam the world. In Germany there is not only Kümmel loaf cheese but a loaf of caraway-seeded bread to go with it. Milwaukee has long made a good Kümmelkäse or hand cheese and it would take more than the fingers on both hands to enumerate all of the European originals, from Dutch Komynkaas through Danish King Christian IX and Norwegian Kuminost, Italian Freisa, Pomeranian Rinnen and Belgian Leyden, to Pennsylvania Pot.
Cardiga, Queijo da
Hard; sheep; oily; mild flavor. Named from cardo, cardoon in English, a kind of thistle used as a vegetable rennet in making several other cheeses, such as French Caillebottes curdled with chardonnette, wild artichoke seed. Only classical Greek sheep cheeses like Casera can compare with the superb ones from the Portuguese mountain districts. They are lusciously oily, but never rancidly so.
Semihard; sheep; white; slightly salted; expensive.
Soft, delicate, in small square forms; similar to Petit Carré and Ancien Impérial (see).
Carré de l'Est
Similar to Camembert, and imitated in the U.S.A.
Cacciocavallo imitation consumed at home.
Semisoft; sheep; mellow; creamy.
Hard; sheep; brittle; gray and greasy. But wonderful! Sour-sweet tongue tickle. This classical though greasy Grecian is imitated with goat milk instead of sheep in Southern California.
Armenia and Greece
Hard; goat or cow's milk; brittle; sharp; nutty. Similar to Casere and high in quality.
Casher Penner see Kasher.
Mellow but sharp imitation of the ubiquitous Italian Cacciocavallo.
Casigiolu, Panedda, Pera di vacca
Plastic-curd cheese, made by the Caciocavallo method.
Caskcaval or Kaschcavallo see Feta.
Semihard. Sheep or cow, milked directly into cone-shaped cloth bag to speed the making. Tastes tangy, sharp and biting.
Locally consumed, seldom exported.
Blue-mold, Gorgonzola type.
Castelo Branco, White Castle
Semisoft; goat or goat and sheep; fermented. Similar to Serra da Estrella (see).
Castillon, or Fromage de Gascony
Fresh cream cheese.
Consumed locally, seldom exported.
Cat's Head see Katzenkopf.
Flavored mildly with celery seeds, instead of the usual caraway.
France—Orléanais, Blois & Aube
Hard; sheep; round and flat. Other Cendrées are Champenois or Ricey, Brie, d'Aizy and Olivet
Available all year. See la Cendrée.
Cendré de la Brie
Fall and winter Brie cured under the ashes, season September to May.
Cendré Champenois or Cendré des Riceys
Aube & Marne, France
Made and eaten from September to June, and ripened under the ashes.
Cendré Olivet see Olivet.
Cenis see Mont Cenis.
Italy, near Milan
A variety of Stracchino named after the Carthusian friars who have made it for donkey's years. It is milder and softer and creamier than the Taleggio because it's made of cow instead of goat milk, but it has less distinction for the same reason.
Soft veteran of Roman times named from its town near Turin.
Soft; goat; fresh; sweet and tasty. A vintage cheese of the months from April to December, since such cheeses don't last long enough to be vintaged like wine by the year.
Season September to June.
One of those eminent Emmentalers from Cham, the home town of Mister Pfister (see Pfister).
Aristotle said that the most savorous cheese came from the chamois. This small goatlike antelope feeds on wild mountain herbs not available to lumbering cows, less agile sheep or domesticated mountain goats, so it gives, in small quantity but high quality, the richest, most flavorsome of milk.
Champenois or Fromage des Riceys
Aube & Marne, France
Season from September to June. The same as Cendré Champenois and des Riceys.
Champoléon de Queyras
Natural Port du Salut type described as "zesty" by some of the best purveyors of domestic cheeses. It has a sharp taste and little odor, perhaps to fill the demand for a "married man's Limburger."
Chantilly see Hablé.
Soft, nice to nibble with the bottled product of this same high-living Champagne Province. A kind of Camembert.
Chaschol, or Chaschosis
Canton of Grisons, Switzerland
Hard; skim; small wheels, eighteen to twenty-two inches in diameter by three to four inches high, weight twenty-two to forty pounds.
Chasteaux see Petits Fromages.
Chateauroux see Fromage de Chèvre.
Season November to May.
Chavignol see Crottin.
Soft; pot; flaky; creamy.
Russia and U.S.A.
For centuries Russia has excelled in making a salubrious cheese bread called Notruschki and the cheese that flavors it is Tworog. (See both.) Only recently Schrafft's in New York put out a yellow, soft and toothsome cheese bread that has become very popular for toasting. It takes heat to bring out its full cheesy savor. Good when overlaid with cheese butter of contrasting piquance, say one mixed with Sapsago.
Equal parts of creamed butter and finely grated or soft cheese and mixtures thereof. The imported but still cheap green Sapsago is not to be forgotten when mixing your own cheese butter.
"Any mixtures of various lots of cheese and other solids derived from milk with emulsifying agents, coloring matter, seasonings, condiments, relishes and water, heated or not, into a homogeneous mass." (A long and kind word for a homely, tasteless, heterogeneous mess.) From an advertisement
Cheese hoppers see Hoppers.
Cheese mites see Mites.
Cheshire and Cheshire imitations see with Cheddar in Chapter 3.
In making this combination of Cheshire and Stilton, the blue mold peculiar to Stilton is introduced in the usual Cheshire process by keeping out each day a little of the curd and mixing it with that in which the mold is growing well. The result is the Cheshire in size and shape and general characteristics but with the blue veins of Stilton, making it really a Blue Cheddar. Another combination is Yorkshire-Stilton, and quite as distinguished.
Another name for Cheshire, used in France where formerly some was imported to make the visiting Britishers feel at home.
Curds sweetened with sugar.
A processed Wisconsin.
Chèvre see Fromages.
Chèvre de Chateauroux see Fromages.
Chèvre petit see Petìts Fromages.
Chèvre, Tome de see Tome.
Goat; small and square. Named after the mammy nanny, as so many are.
Chevrets, Ponta & St. Rémy
Bresse & Franche-Comté, France
Dry and semi-dry; crumbly; goat; small squares; lightly salted. Season December to April. Such small goat cheeses are named in the plural in France.
Chevretons du Beaujolais à la crème, les
Small goat-milkers served with cream. This is a fair sample of the railroad names some French cheeses stagger under.
Soft, dried goat milk; white; small; tangy and semi-tangy. Made and eaten from March to December.
All we know is that this is made of the whole milk of cows, soured, and it is not as unusual as the double "h" in its name.
There are two different kinds named for the Chiavari region, and both are hard:
I. Sour cow's milk, also known as Cacio Romano.
II. Sweet whole milker, similar to Corsican Broccio. Chiavari, the
historic little port between Genoa and Pisa, is more noted as the
birthplace of the barbaric "chivaree" razzing of newlyweds with
its raucous serenade of dishpans, sour-note bugling and such.
Chives cream cheese
Of the world's many fine fresh cheeses further freshened with chives, there's Belgian Hervé and French Claqueret (with onion added). (See both.) For our taste it's best when the chives are added at home, as it's done in Germany, in person at the table or just before.
Canton Graubünden, Switzerland
Hard; smooth; sharp; tangy.
A distinguished spiced cheese.
Soft, small cream cheese.
Cierp de Luchon
Made from November to May in the Comté de Foix, where it has the distinction of being the only local product worth listing with France's three hundred notables.
Simply cottage cheese left in a cool place until it grows soft and automatically changes its name from cottage to clabber.
Formerly made in a Benedictine monastery of that name.
Fresh cream whipped with chives, chopped fine with onions. See Chives.
Clérimbert see Alpin.
French imitation of the German imitation of a Holland-Dutch original.
Cloves see Nagelkäse.
Club, Potted Club, Snappy, Cold-pack and Comminuted cheese
U.S.A. and Canada
Probably McLaren's Imperial Club in pots was first to be called club, but others credit club to the U.S. In any case McLaren's was bought by an American company and is now all-American.
Today there are many clubs that may sound swanky but taste very ordinary, if at all. They are made of finely ground aged, sharp Cheddar mixed with condiments, liquors, olives, pimientos, etc., and mostly carry come-on names to make the customers think they are getting something from Olde England or some aristocratic private club. All are described as "tangy."
Originally butter went into the better clubs which were sold in small porcelain jars, but in these process days they are wrapped in smaller tin foil and wax-paper packets and called "snappy."
Recommended from stock by Phil Alpert's "Cheeses of all Nations" stores:
Argentine aged Gruyère
Port du Salut
Polish Warshawski Syr
American Cheddar in brandy
Coeur à la Crème
This becomes Fromage à la Crème II (see) when served with sugar, and it is also called a heart of cream after being molded into that romantic shape in a wicker or willow-twig basket.
These hearts of Arras are soft, smooth, mellow, caressingly rich with the cream of Arras.
Just as the Dutch captivated coffee lovers all over the world with their coffee-flavored candies, Haagische Hopjes, so the French with Jonchée cheese and Italians with Ricotta satisfy the universal craving by putting coffee in for flavor.
Goat or cow; semihard; firm; round; salty; sharp. Not only one of those college-educated cheeses but a postgraduate one, bearing the honored name of Portugal's ancient academic center.
Similar to Cheddar, but of softer body and more open texture. Contains more moisture, and doesn't keep as well as Cheddar.
Besides Coimbra several countries have cheeses brought out by their colleges. Even Brazil has one in Minas Geraes and Transylvania another called Kolos-Monostor, while our agricultural colleges in every big cheese state from California through Ames in Iowa, Madison in Wisconsin, all across the continent to Cornell in New York, vie with one another in turning out diploma-ed American Cheddars and such of high degree. It is largely to the agricultural colleges that we owe the steady improvement in both quality and number of foreign imitations since the University of Wisconsin broke the curds early in this century by importing Swiss professors to teach the high art of Emmentaler.
Colwick see Slipcote.
Small; similar to Italian Stracchino in everything but size.
Hard; ball-shaped like Edam and resembling it except being darker in color and packed in a ball weighing about twice as much, around eight pounds. It is made in the province of North Holland and in Friesland. It is often preferred to Edam for size and nutty flavor.
Comté see Gruyère.
Condrieu, Rigotte de la
Rhone Valley below Lyons, France
Semihard; goat; small; smooth; creamy; mellow; tasty. A cheese of cheeses for epicures, only made from May to November when pasturage is rich.
Confits au Marc de Bourgogne see Epoisses.
Confits au Vin Blanc see Epoisses.
Cooked, or Pennsylvania pot
Named from cooking sour clabbered curd to the melting point. When cool it is allowed to stand three or four days until it is colored through. Then it is cooked again with salt, milk, and usually caraway. It is stirred until it's as thick as molasses and strings from a spoon. It is then put into pots or molds, whose shape it retains when turned out.
All cooked cheese is apt to be tasteless unless some of the milk flavor cooked out is put back in, as wheat germ is now returned to white bread. Almost every country has a cooked cheese all its own, with or without caraway, such as the following:
France—Fromage Ouit & Le P'Teux
A Nebraska product similar to Cheddar and Colby, but with softer body and more moisture.
A splendid French version of Alsatian Münster spiked with caraway, in flattish cylinders with mahogany-red coating. It is similar to Géromé and the harvest cheese of Gérardmer in the same lush Vosges Valley.
Corse, Roquefort de
Corsican imitation of the real Roquefort, and not nearly so good, of course.
Cow or sheep. There are two varieties: I. Soft, cured in brine and still soft and mild after two months in
the salt bath.
II. Semihard and very sharp after aging in brine for a year or more.
Also known as Yorkshire-Stilton, and Wensleydale No. I. (See both.)
Cotrone, Cotronese see Pecorino.
Cotta see Pasta.
Made in all countries where any sort of milk is obtainable. In America it's also called pot, Dutch, and smearcase. The English, who like playful names for homely dishes, call cottage cheese smearcase from the German Schmierkäse. It is also called Glumse in Deutschland, and, together with cream, formed the basis of all of our fine Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine.
Cottenham or Double Cottenham
Semihard; double cream; blue mold. Similar to Stilton but creamier and richer, and made in flatter and broader forms.
A brand of cream cheese named for its home in Cotswold, Gloucester. Although soft, it tastes like hard Cheddar.
Coulommiers Frais, or Petit-Moule
Fresh cream similar to Petit Suisse. (See.)
Coulommiers, le, or Brie de Coulommiers
Also called Petit-moule, from its small form. This genuine Brie is a pocket edition, no larger than a Camembert, standing only one inch high and measuring five or six inches across. It is made near Paris and is a great favorite from the autumn and winter months, when it is made, on until May. The making starts in October, a month earlier than most Brie, and it is off the market by July, so it's seldom tasted by the avalanche of American summer tourists.
Sounds redundant, and is used mostly in Germany, where an identifying word is added, such as Berliner Kuhkäse and Alt Kuhkäse: old cow cheese.
England, France and America go for it heavily. English cream begins with Devonshire, the world-famous, thick fresh cream that is sold cool in earthenware pots and makes fresh berries—especially the small wild strawberries of rural England—taste out of this world. It is also drained on straw mats and formed into fresh hardened cheeses in small molds. (See Devonshire cream.) Among regional specialties are the following, named from their place of origin or commercial brands:
Rush (from being made on rush or straw mats—see Rush)
St. Ivel (distinguished for being made with acidophilus bacteria)
Slipcote (famous in the eighteenth century)
Crème Chantilly see Hablé.
Crème de Gien see Fromage.
Crème de Gruyère
Soft Gruyère cream cheese, arrives in America in perfect condition in tin foil packets. Expensive but worth it.
Crème des Vosges
Soft cream. Season October to April.
Crème Double see Double-Crème.
Crème, Fromage à la see Fromage.
Crème, Fromage Blanc à la see Fromage Blanc.
Crème St Gervais see Pots de Crème St Gervais.
Lower Loire, France
Soft fresh cream of Nantes.
A fresh cream equal to English Devonshire, served more as a dessert than a dessert cheese. The cream is whipped stiff with egg whites, drained and eaten with more fresh cream, sprinkled with vanilla and sugar.
Soft, small cream cheese from Cremona, the violin town. And by the way, art-loving Italians make ornamental cheeses in the form of musical instruments, statues, still life groups and everything.
Soft, rich, unripened cottage cheese type, made by mixing cottage-type curd and rich cream.
Crescenza, Carsenza, Stracchino Crescenza, Crescenza Lombardi
Uncooked; soft; creamy; mildly sweet; fast-ripening; yellowish; whole milk. Made from September to April.
A two-in-one farm cheese of skimmed milk, resulting from two different ways of ripening, after the cheese has been removed from perforated earthen molds seven inches in diameter and five or six inches high, where it has drained for several days:
I. It is salted and turned frequently until very dry and hard.
II. It is ripened by placing in tightly closed mold, lined with straw.
This softens, flavors, and turns it golden-yellow. (See Hay
or Fromage de Foin.)
Creusois, or Guéret
Season, October to June.
Soft, double cream, semisalty. All year.
Crottin de Chavignol
Semihard; goat's milk; small; lightly salted; mellow. In season April to December. The name is not exactly complimentary.
Crowdie, or Cruddy butter
Named from the combination of fresh sweet milk curds pressed together with fresh butter. A popular breakfast food in Inverness and the Ross Shires. When kept for months it develops a high flavor. A similar curd and butter is made by Arabs and stored in vats, the same as in India, the land of ghee, where there's no refrigeration.
F. Marion MacNeill, in The Scots Kitchen says that this was the name of a cheese that used to be part of the Kimmers feast at a lying-in.
Cuajada see Venezuela.
Cubjac see Cajassou.
Cuit see Fromage Cuit.
Cumin, Münster au see Münster.
Cup see Koppen.
Curd see Granular curd, Sweet curd and York curd.
Curds and butter
Fresh sweet milk curd and fresh butter are pressed together as in making Crowdie or Cruddy butter in Scotland. The Arabs put this strong mixture away in vats to get it even stronger than East Indian ghee.
Curé, Fromage de see Nantais.
A popular type and packaging of mild Cheddar, originally English. Known as an "all-around cheese," to eat raw, cook, let ripen, and use for seasoning.
Semihard and nutty.
Damen, or Glory of the Mountains (Gloires des Montagnes)
Soft, uncured, mild ladies' cheese, as its name asserts. Popular Alpine snack in Viennese cafés with coffee gossip in the afternoon.
Semihard, rich, blue-veined, piquant, delicate, excellent imitation of Roquefort. Sometimes called "Danish Roquefort," and because it is exported around the world it is Denmark's best-known cheese. Although it sells for 20% to 30% less than the international triumvirate of Blues, Roquefort, Stilton and Gorgonzola, it rivals them and definitely leads lesser Blues.
Skim milk and buttermilk. Round and flat, mild and mellow. A fine cheese, as many Danish exports are.
Danish Swiss cheese, imitation Emmentaler, but with small holes. Nutty, sweet dessert or "picnic cheese," as Swiss is often called.
A pleasant cheese to accompany a glass of the great liqueur, Goldwasser, Eau de Vie de Danzig, from the same celebrated city.
One of the finest Vermont Cheddars, handled for years by one of America's finest fancy food suppliers, S.S. Pierce of Boston.
Season, November to May.
d'Aurigny, Fromage see Alderney.
A Stilton type, white, small, round, flat and very rich, with "blue" veins of a darker green.
In season all year. Soft, creamy, mellow, resembles Brie.
de Foin, Fromage see Hay.
Crumbly, sharp, nutty.
de Gascony, Fromage see Castillon.
de Gérardmer see Récollet.
About the same as Leyden. (See.)
The brand name of a truly delicious Brie.
A mellow breakfast spread, on the style of the German Frühstück original. (See.)
de Lile, Boule
French name for Belgian Oude Kaas.
Half-size Étuve. (See.)
Demi Petit Suisse
The name for an extra small Petit Suisse to distinguish it from the Gros.
Soft, whole, creamy, lightly salted, resembles Gournay but slightly saltier; also like U.S. cream cheese, but softer and creamier.
Demi-Sel, Croissant see Croissant Demi-Sel.
Derby, or Derbyshire
Hard; shape like Austrian Nagelkassa and the size of Cheshire though sometimes smaller. Dry, large, flat, round, flaky, sharp and tangy. A factory cheese said to be identical with Double Gloucester and similar to Warwickshire, Wiltshire and Leicester. The experts pronounce it "a somewhat inferior Cheshire, but deficient in its quality and the flavor of Cheddar." So it's unlikely to win in any cheese derby in spite of its name.
Devonshire cream and cheese
Devonshire cream is world famous for its thickness and richness. Superb with wild strawberries; almost a cream cheese by itself. Devonshire cream is made into a luscious cheese ripened on straw, which gives it a special flavor, such as that of French Foin or Hay cheese.
This creamy blue-vein variety is named Sweet Green, because cheesemongers are color-blind when it comes to the blue-greens and the green-blues.
Domaci Beli Sir
"Sir" is not a title but the word for cheese. This is a typical ewe's-milker cured in a fresh sheep skin.
An imitation of a cheese impossible to imitate.
Same as domestic Gruyère, maybe more so, since it is made in ponderous 150-to 200-pound wheels, chiefly in Wisconsin and Ohio. The trouble is there is no Alpine pasturage and Emmentaler Valley in our country.
Whole or partly skimmed cow's or buffalo's milk. Soft; white; no openings; mild and salty when fresh and cleanly acid when cured. It's called "a pickled cheese" and is very popular in the Near East.
Dorset, Double Dorset, Blue Dorset, or Blue Vinny
Blue mold type from Dorsetshire; crumbly, sharp; made in flat forms. "Its manufacture has been traced back 150 years in the family of F.E. Dare, who says that in all probability it was made longer ago than that." (See Blue Vinny.)
An entirely original cheese perfected by G. Leuchs in Nürnberg. He enriched skim milk with yolk of eggs and made the cheese in the usual way. When well ripened it is splendid.
The English name cheese made of whole milk "double," such as Double Cottenham, Double Dorset, Double Gloucester. "Singles" are cheeses from which some of the cream has been removed.
Similar to Wensleydale.
There are several of this name, made in the summer when milk is richest in cream. The full name is Fromage à la Double-crème, and Pommel is one well known. They are made throughout France in season and are much in demand.
A celebrated hand cheese made in Dresden. The typical soft, skim milker, strong with caraway and drunk dissolved in beer, as well as merely eaten.
Not only Dresdener, but dozens of regional hand cheeses in Germanic countries are melted in steins of beer or glasses of wine to make distinctive cheesed drinks for strong stomachs and noses. This peps up the drinks in somewhat the same way as ale and beer are laced with pepper sauce in some parts.
From the drinking cheese just above to dry cheese is quite a leap. "This cheese, known as Sperrkäse and Trockenkäse, is made in the small dairies of the eastern part of the Bavarian Alps and in the Tyrol. It is an extremely simple product, made for home consumption and only in the winter season, when the milk cannot be profitably used for other purposes. As soon as the milk is skimmed it is put into a large kettle which can be swung over a fire, where it is kept warm until it is thoroughly thickened from souring. It is then broken up and cooked quite firm. A small quantity of salt and sometimes some caraway seed are added, and the curd is put into forms of various sizes. It is then placed in a drying room, where it becomes very hard, when it is ready for eating." (From U.S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin No. 608.)
Dubreala see Brina.
Soft; skim milk; hand type; two by two by one-inch cube.
One of the national cheeses of Scotland, but now far behind Cheddar, which it resembles, although it is closer in texture and moister. Semihard; white; sharp; buttery; tangy and rich in flavor. It is one of the "toasting cheeses" resembling Lancashire, too, in form and weight. Made in Ayr, Lanark and Renfrew and sold in the markets of Kilmarnock, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown.
Mixed with butter; mellow and smoky. Costs three dollars a pound.
Duralag, or Bgug-Panir
Sheep; semisoft to brittle hard; square; sharp but mellow and tangy with herbs. Sometimes salty from lying in a brine bath from two days to two months.
Durmar, Rarush see Rarush.
Cream cheese of skim milk, very perishable spread.
American vernacular for cottage or pot cheese.
Dutch Cream Cheese
Made in England although called Dutch. Contains eggs, and is therefore richer than Dutch cream cheese in Holland itself. In America we call the original Holland-kind Dutch, cottage, pot, and farmer.
A specialty of Oakland, California.
Dutch Red Balls
English name for Edam.
Echourgnac, Trappe d'
Trappist monastery Port-Salut made in Limousin.
Semihard. One of the few cheeses made by adding eggs to the curds. Others are Dutch Cream Cheese of England; German Dotter; French Fromage Cuit (cooked cheese), and Westphalian. Authorities agree that these should be labeled "egg cheese" so the buyers won't be fooled by their richness. The Finns age their eggs even as the Chinese ripen their hundred-year-old eggs, by burying them in grain, as all Scandinavians do, and the Scotch as well, in the oat bin. But none of them is left a century to ripen, as eggs are said to be in China.
Elbinger, or Elbing
Hard; crumbly; sharp. Made of whole milk except in winter when it is skimmed. Also known as Werderkäse and Niederungskäse.
Hard; sheep; white; sharp; salty with some of the brine it's bathed in.
Elisavetpolen, or Eriwani
Hard; sheep; sweetish-sharp and slightly salty when fresh from the brine bath. Also called Kasach (Cossack), Tali, Kurini and Karab in different locales.
Soft, mellow, tasty.
Hard; flavor varies from mild to sharp. Parmesan type.
There are so many, many types of this celebrated Swiss all around the world that we're not surprised to find Lapland reindeer milk cheese listed as similar to Emmentaler of the hardest variety.
French phrase of packaged cheese, "in the envelope." Similar to English packet and our process. Raw natural cheese the French refer to frankly as nu, "in the nude."
Semihard; mild; tangy-sweet.
England and U.S.A.
Extra-hard, crumbly and sharp. Resembles Cheddar and has long been imitated in the States, chiefly as a cooking cheese.
Entrechaux, le Cachat d' see Cachat.
Epoisses, Fromage d'
Côte d'Or, Upper Burgundy, France
Soft, small cylinder with flattened end, about five inches across. The season is from November to July. Equally proud of their wine and cheese, the Burgundians marry white wine or marc to d'Epoisses in making confits with that name.
Similar to Gorgonzola. The Galvani cheesemakers of Italy who put out both Bel Paese and Taleggio also export Erbo to our shores.
Soft, smooth and sharp. A winter cheese in season only from November to May.
Eriwani see Elisavetpolen.
Soft; yellow rind; smooth; tangy; piquant; seven by two-and-a-half inches, weight four pounds. Resembles Camembert. A washed cheese, also known as Fromage de Troyes. In season November to May.
Imitation of an extinct or at least dormant English type.
Estrella see Serra da Estrella.
Étuve and Demi-Étuve
Semihard; smooth; mellow. In full size and demi (half) size. In season all year.
Sharp, nutty flavor.
Season all year.