Bread recipes & types



WHITE BREAD--LONG PROCESS
(Sufficient for Two Large or Three Small Loaves)
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 2 Tb. sugar
  • 1/2 cake compressed yeast, or 1 cake dried yeast
  • 1 Tb. salt
  • 1 qt. lukewarm liquid
  • 3 qt. flour
  • 1 c. flour additional for kneading
Put into the mixing bowl the fat, the sugar, the salt, and the yeast that has been dissolved in a little of the lukewarm liquid. Add the remainder of the liquid and stir in half of the flour. Place this sponge where it will rise overnight and will not become chilled. In the morning, add the remainder of the flour, stirring it well into the risen sponge, and knead the dough thus formed. Allow it to rise until it has doubled in bulk and then knead it again. After it is properly kneaded, shape it into loaves, place them in greased pans, let them rise until they have doubled in bulk, and then bake them.
Combining the ingredients in the manner just mentioned is following the sponge method of the long process. By adding all instead of half of the flour at night, the straight-dough method of this process may be followed.
WHITE BREAD--QUICK PROCESS
(Sufficient for Two Large or Three Small Loaves)
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 2 Tb. sugar
  • 1 Tb. salt
  • 2 cakes compressed yeast
  • 1 qt. lukewarm liquid
  • 3 qt. flour
  • 1 c. flour additional for kneading
Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt into the mixing bowl, and then to them add the yeast dissolved in a few tablespoonfuls of the lukewarm liquid. Add the remaining liquid and stir in half or all of the flour, according to whether the process is to be completed by the sponge or the straight-dough method. One yeast cake may be used instead of two. However, if the smaller quantity of yeast is used, the process will require more time, but the results will be equally as good. After the dough has been allowed to rise the required number of times and has been kneaded properly for the method selected, place it in greased pans, let it rise sufficiently, and proceed with the baking.
74. WHOLE-WHEAT BREAD.--Bread made out of whole-wheat flour has a distinctive flavour that is very agreeable to most persons. This kind of bread is not used so extensively as that made of white flour, but since it contains more mineral salts and bulk, it should have a place in the diet of every family. When made according to the following recipe, whole-wheat bread will be found to be a very desirable substitute for bread made of the finer flours.
WHOLE-WHEAT BREAD--QUICK PROCESS
(Sufficient for Two Small Loaves)
  • 3 Tb. fat
  • 1/4 c. brown sugar
  • 1 Tb. salt
  • 1 cake compressed yeast
  • 3 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 8 c. whole-wheat flour
  • 1 c. white flour for kneading
Place the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl and add the yeast cake dissolved in a little of the liquid. Add the remainder of the liquid, and then stir in half or all of the flour, according to whether the sponge or the straight-dough method is preferred. Then proceed according to the directions previously given for making bread by the quick process.
The long process may also be followed in making whole-wheat bread, and if it is, only one-half the quantity of yeast should be used.
75. GRAHAM BREAD.--To lend variety to the family diet, frequent use should be made of graham bread, which contains even more bulk and mineral salts than whole-wheat bread. In bread of this kind, both graham and white flour are used. Since graham flour is very heavy, it prevents the bread from rising quickly, so the bread is started with white flour. The accompanying recipe contains quantities for the short process, although it may be adapted to the long process by merely using one-half the amount of yeast.
GRAHAM BREAD
(Sufficient for Two Loaves)
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 1/4 c. brown sugar
  • 2 tsp. salt
  • 1 cake compressed yeast
  • 2 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 2 c. white flour
  • 3 c. graham flour
  • 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl, and to them add the yeast that has been dissolved in a little of the liquid. Pour over these ingredients the remainder of the liquid and stir in the white flour. When the mixture is to be made stiff, add the graham flour. Then knead the dough, let it rise, knead again, place it in greased pans, let rise, and bake.
A point to be remembered in the making of graham bread is that sifting removes the bran from graham flour, and if lightness is desired, the flour may be sifted and the bran then replaced.
76. GRAHAM BREAD WITH NUTS.--To increase the food value of graham bread, nuts are sometimes added. This kind of bread also provides an agreeable variety to the diet. The following recipe is intended to be carried out by the short process, so that if the long process is desired the quantity of yeast must be reduced.
GRAHAM BREAD WITH NUTS
(Sufficient for Two Loaves)
  • 1 cake compressed yeast
  • 2 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 1/4 c. molasses
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 1 Tb. salt
  • 2 c. white flour
  • 4 c. graham flour
  • 1-1/2 c. chopped nuts
  • 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm liquid and mix it with the molasses, fat, and salt. Add the remaining liquid and the white flour. Let this sponge rise until it is light. Then stir in the graham flour, adding the nuts while kneading. Let the dough rise until it doubles in bulk. Shape into loaves, place it in the greased pans, and let it rise until it doubles in size. Bake for an hour or more, according to the size of the loaves.
77. WHOLE-WHEAT FRUIT BREAD.--A very delicious whole-wheat bread is produced by combining fruit, which, besides improving the flavour, adds to the food value of the bread. Thin slices of this kind of bread spread with butter make excellent summer sandwiches. If the short process is employed, the amounts specified in the following recipe should be used, but for the long process the quantity of yeast should be decreased.
WHOLE-WHEAT FRUIT BREAD
(Sufficient for Three Small Loaves)
  • 1 yeast cake
  • 2 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 1/4 c. brown sugar stoned, chopped dates
  • 2 tsp. salt
  • 6 c. whole-wheat flour
  • 1-1/2 c. seeded raisins or stoned, chopped dates
  • 1 c. white flour for kneading
Dissolve the yeast cake in a little of the lukewarm liquid and add it to the fat, sugar, and salt that have been put into the mixing bowl. Pour in the remainder of the liquid and add half or all of the flour, depending on the bread-making method that is followed. Stir in the fruit before all the flour is added and just before the dough is shaped into loaves. After it has risen sufficiently in the greased pans, proceed with the baking.
78. BRAN BREAD.--Bread in which bran is used is proportionately a trifle lower in food value than that in which whole wheat or white flour is used. However, it has the advantage of an additional amount of bulk in the form of bran, and because of this it is a wholesome food.
BRAN BREAD
(Sufficient for Two Loaves)
  • 2 c. milk
  • 6 Tb. molasses
  • 1-1/2 tsp. salt
  • 1/2 yeast cake
  • 1/4 c. lukewarm water
  • 2 c. white flour
  • 4 c. graham flour
  • 1 c. sterilized bran
  • 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
Scald the milk and to it add the molasses and salt. When this is lukewarm, add to it the yeast cake dissolved in the lukewarm water, as well as the white flour and 1 cupful of the graham flour. Cover this mixture and let it rise. When it has risen sufficiently, add the bran and the rest of the graham flour and knead. Cover this dough, and let it rise until it doubles in bulk. Then shape it into loaves, place it in the greased pans, let it rise again until it doubles in bulk, and bake in a hot oven.
79. RYE BREAD.--Rye bread has a typical flavour that many persons enjoy. When rye flour is used alone, it makes a moist, sticky bread; therefore, in order to produce bread of a good texture, wheat flour must be used with the rye flour. The recipe here given is for the short process of bread making, but by reducing the quantity of yeast it may be used for the long process.
RYE BREAD
(Sufficient for Three Loaves)
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 1 Tb. salt
  • 2 Tb. sugar
  • 1 cake compressed yeast
  • 3 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 6 c. rye flour
  • 4 c. white flour
  • 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
Into the mixing bowl, put the fat, the salt, the sugar, and the yeast that has been dissolved in a small quantity of the lukewarm liquid. Then stir in the flour, one-half or all of it, according to whether the sponge or the straight-dough method is followed. When the dough is formed, allow it to rise until it doubles in bulk; then knead it and shape it into loaves for the greased pans. When these have risen until they are double in size and therefore ready for the oven, glaze the surface of each by brushing it with the white of egg and water and put them in the oven to bake. If desired, caraway seed may be added to the dough when it is formed into loaves or simply sprinkled on the top of each loaf. To many persons the caraway seed imparts a flavour to the bread that is very satisfactory.
80. CORN BREAD.--Corn meal is sometimes combined with wheat flour to make corn bread. Such a combination decreases the cost of bread at times when corn meal is cheap. Bread of this kind is high in food value, because corn meal contains a large proportion of fat, which is more or less lacking in white flour. The following recipe is given for the short process, but it may be used for the long process by merely decreasing the quantity of yeast.
CORN BREAD
(Sufficient for Two Loaves)
  • 1 yeast cake
  • 2 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 2 tsp. salt
  • 1 Tb. sugar
  • 2 Tb. fat
  • 4-1/2 c. white flour
  • 2 c. corn meal
  • 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
Put the yeast to soak in 1/4 cupful of warm water and let it dissolve. Heat the liquid and cool it to lukewarm, and then add to it the salt, the sugar, the dissolved yeast, and the melted fat. Make a sponge with some of the flour and let it rise until it doubles in bulk. Then make a dough with the corn meal and the remaining flour. Knead the dough, let it rise again, and form it into loaves. Let these rise in the greased pans until they double in bulk; then bake about 45 minutes.
81. RICE BREAD.--Very often variety is given to bread by the addition of rice, which imparts an unusual flavour to bread and effects a saving of wheat flour. Oatmeal and other cereals may be used in the same way as rice, and bread containing any of these moist cereals will remain moist longer than bread in which they are not used.
RICE BREAD
(Sufficient for Three Loaves)
  • 1/2 c. uncooked rice
  • 1-1/2 c. water
  • 1 Tb. salt
  • 1 Tb. sugar
  • 1 Tb. fat
  • 1/2 yeast cake
  • 1 c. lukewarm liquid
  • 6 c. white flour
  • 1 c. white flour additional for kneading
Steam the rice in a double boiler in 1 and a half cupfuls of water until it is soft and dry. Add the salt, sugar, and fat, and allow all to become lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm liquid, and add it to the rice. Put all in the mixing bowl, stir in 2 cupfuls of flour, and allow the mixture to become very light. Add the remainder of the flour and knead lightly. Let the dough rise until it has doubled in bulk and knead to reduce the quantity. Place in greased pans. When the loaves have risen sufficiently, bake for about 50 minutes.
82. SALT-RISING BREAD.--Recipes for bread would be incomplete if mention were not made of salt-rising bread. Such bread differs from ordinary bread in that the gas that causes the rising is due to the action of bacteria. Salt-rising bread is not universally popular, yet many persons are fond of it. Its taste is very agreeable, and, as a rule, its texture is excellent; however, it always has an unpleasant odour. The method given in the accompanying recipe for salt-rising bread differs in no way from the usual method of making it. It is very necessary that the first mixture of corn meal, salt, sugar, and milk be kept at a uniformly warm temperature in order to induce bacteria to grow. Any failure to make such bread successfully will probably be due to the violation of this precaution rather than to any other cause.
SALT-RISING BREAD
(Sufficient for Two Loaves)
  • 1 c. fresh milk
  • 1/4 c. corn meal
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 2 tsp. sugar
  • 2 c. lukewarm water
  • 7 c. white flour
  • 1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading
Scald the milk and pour it over the corn meal, salt, and sugar. Allow this mixture to stand in a warm place for several hours or overnight, when it should be light. To this batter add the warm water and enough flour to make a drop batter. Allow this to stand in a warm place until it is light; and then add the remainder of the flour so as to make a dough, and knead. Allow this to rise, shape it into loaves, put it in pans, let it rise again, and bake.


Bread Corn,

Properly so called, of which loaf-bread is chiefly made among cultivated nations, comprehends the seeds of the whole tribe of (cerealia), or gramineous plants; for they all contain a farinaceous substance, of a similar nature, and chiefly composed 31of starch. Those of the cerealia in common use are the following:
WheatTriticum hybernum.
BarleyHordeum vulgare.
RyeSecale cereale.
With us, wheat is chiefly employed for the fabrication of bread. It is, in fact, the only grain of which light porous bread can be made; but rye and barley are also used as bread-corn. The farina of the other cerealia afford also a nutritive and wholesome bread; though their flour is not so susceptible of the panary fermentation, it cannot be made into the white texture of the wheaten loaf. The bread formed from them is consequently much inferior to that prepared from wheat. The following seeds are chiefly employed to make a species of bread:
32
OatsAvena Sativa.
MaizeZea Mays.
RiceOriza Sativa.
MilletPanicum milliaceum.
Oats are used in the north of Europe for making a kind of bread, called oatmeal-cake, and particularly by the inhabitants of Scotland. Maize is frequently employed as bread-corn in North America.
Rice nourishes more human beings than all the other seeds together, used as food; and it is by many considered the most nutritive of all sorts of grain. A very ridiculous prejudice has existed with respect to rice, namely, that it is prejudicial to the sight, by causing diseases of the eye; but no authority can warrant this assertion: on the contrary, the opinion of the ablest men (Cullen’s Mat. Med. v. i. p. 229) may be quoted in favour of rice being a very 33healthy food: and the experience of all Asia and America may be adduced with sufficient weight to have answered this objection, if it had been supported by any thing more than vulgar prejudice, unsupported by facts. This grain is peculiarly calculated to diminish the evils of a scanty harvest, an inconvenience which must occasionally affect all countries, particularly those which are very populous. It is the most fitted of all food to be of use in relieving general distress in a bad season[2], because it comes from a part of the world where provisions are cheap and abundant; it is light, easy of carriage, keeps well for a long time, and contains a great deal of wholesome food within a small compass. Indeed, it has been ascertained that one 34part of rice contains as much food and useful nourishment as six of wheat.
2.  Reports of the Society for bettering the Condition of the Poor, Vol. I. p. 137.
Next to the cerealia, the seeds of leguminous plants may be regarded as substitutes for bread corn. Their ripe seeds afford the greatest quantity of alimentary matter. Their meal has a sweetish taste, but they cannot be made into light and porous bread, without the addition of a portion of wheaten flour. Their meal, however, though it forms but a coarse and indifferent bread, neither very palatable nor very digestible, except by the most robust stomachs, is yet highly nutritive.
It is remarked by Dr. Cullen, that “on certain farms of this country, upon which the leguminous seeds are produced in great abundance, the labouring servants are much fed upon that kind of grain; but if such servants are removed to a farm upon 35which the leguminous seeds are not in such plenty, and therefore they are fed with the cerealia, they soon find a decay of strength; and it is common for servants, in making such removals, to insist on their being provided daily, or weekly, with a certain quantity of the leguminous meal.” We are not, however, to conclude from this observation, that pease-meal bread, is really more nutritive than wheaten bread, or than the meal of the other cerealia. We are rather disposed to regard it as an example of the effect of habit.
The leguminous seeds employed in the fabrication of bread, are
PeasePisum Sativum.
BeansVicia faba.
Kidney BeansPhaseolus vulgaris.
The whole of this tribe afford a much 36more agreeable, though not a more nutritive aliment, when their seeds are used green, young, and tender, and simply boiled, than when fully ripened, and their flour baked.
It is remarked, that all the substances of which bread is made, as well as the substitutes for it, when chemically considered, are chiefly composed of one and the same identical material; namely, the farinaceous matter of the seeds, roots, fruits, or other products of vegetables, of different climates and soils; and that starch, or the amylaceous fecula, forms the most valuable part of all the materials used for making bread, and its substitutes.
This substance forms by far the most abundant, the most nourishing, and the most easy to be procured aliment, obtainable from the vegetable kingdom.
37“Whilst immense tribes of creatures devour the amylaceous fecula in the grain, as nature produces it, man knows how to give it different forms, from the most simple boiling to the most complicated delicacies of the arts of the confectioner and pastry-cook.
“It is singular that man should waste so valuable a substance for the purpose of hair-powder, a kind of custom perhaps ridiculous, in which modern nations imitate, without being aware of it, those people whom they term barbarous, and by which custom they lavish away a portion of the subsistence of a great number of families.”
This nutritive aliment, we find, exists in various combinations, in the roots, seeds, in the stems, and fruits of plants. Many roots abounding in the amylaceous fecula, yields a palatable and highly nutritious aliment.
38Hence the potatoe is a substance largely employed as a substitute for bread. Its nutritious qualities are fully ascertained by the experience of all Europe; it makes a considerable portion of the food of the poor; and in Ireland in particular, millions of people exist, who, from sufficient evidence, we are pretty certain live for years together almost wholly on this root and water, without any other seasoning than a little salt. It contains much amylaceous fecula, and when mixed with wheaten flour, may be formed into good and palatable bread. Other substances, besides the grains before mentioned, are in different parts of the world substituted for bread. These are the following:
39

The Bread-Fruit.

The Bread-fruit Tree (Artocarpus incisa) affords the inhabitants of the South Pacific Ocean a substance resembling bread. They only climb the tree to gather the fruit, which is of a round shape, from five to six inches in diameter; it grows on boughs like apples, and, when quite ripe, is of a yellowish colour. The bread-fruit has a tough reticulated rind; there is neither seed nor stone in the inside of it. The eatable part, which lies between the skin and the core, is as white as snow, and of the consistence of new bread. The fruit is roasted on embers, or baked in an oven, which scorches the rind and turns it black; this is rasped off, and there remains a thin 40white crust, while the inside is soft and white, like crumbs of fine loaf-bread. It is eaten new, for if it is kept longer than twenty-four hours, it becomes harsh and unpalatable. It is also boiled, by which means the interior is rendered white, like a boiled potatoe. They make three dishes of it, by putting either water or the milk of the cocoa-nut to it, then beating it into a paste with a stone pestle, and afterwards mixing it with banana paste, which has been suffered to become sour.
The bread-fruit remains in season eight months in the year, during which time the natives eat no other sort of food of the bread kind; and the deficiency of the other four months of the year, is made up chiefly with cocoa-nuts, bananas, plantains, bread nuts (brosimum alicastrum), and other farinaceous fruits.
41

Sago Bread.

The Sago-Tree (Cycas Circinalis), which grows spontaneously in the East Indies, and particularly on the Coast of Malabar, furnishes to numerous Indian tribes their bread. In the Islands of Banda and Amboyna, they saw the body of the tree into small pieces, and, after bruising and beating them in a mortar, pour water upon the fragments; this is left for some hours undisturbed, to suffer the pithy farinaceous matter to subside. The water is then poured off, and the meal, being properly dried, is formed into cakes, or fermented and made into bread, which, it is said, eats nearly as well as wheaten bread.
The Hottentots make a kind of bread of 42another species of sago-tree (Cycas Resoluta). The pith, or medulla, which abounds in the trunk of this little palm, is collected and tied up in dressed calf’s or sheep’s skin, and then buried in the ground for several weeks, which renders it mellow and tender. It is then kneaded with water into dough, and made into small loaves or cakes, which are baked under embers. Other Hottentots, not quite so nice, merely dry and roast the farinaceous pith, and afterwards make it into a kind of frumety or porridge.

SAGO.

The same meal, or medulla, of the sago-tree, reduced into grain, by passing it whilst still moist through a kind of sieve, produces the sago of commerce, which receives its brown colour by being heated on hot stones.
43

Casava Bread.

In the Caribbee Islands they make bread of a very poisonous root (Jatropa Maniat), rendered wholesome by the extraction of its acrid juice, which the Indians use for poisoning their arrows. A tea-spoonful of the juice is sufficient to poison a man.
The root of the maniat, after being crashed, scraped clean, and grated in a tub, is enclosed in a sack of rushes, of very loose texture, which is suspended upon a stick placed upon two wooden forks. To the bottom of this sack a heavy vessel is suspended, which, by drawing the sack, presses the grated root and receives the juice that flows out of it. When the starch is well exhausted of its juice, it is exposed 44to smoke in order to dry it; and when well dried it is passed through a sieve. In this state it is termed Casava. It is baked into cakes, by spreading it on hot plates of iron or earth, turning it on both sides, in order to give it a good reddish colour.

TAPIOCA.

The article of commerce, called tapioca, is the finest part of the farinaceous pith of the casava. It is separately collected and formed into small tears, by straining the mass while still moist, to form it into small irregular lumps.
45

Plantain Bread.

The Plantain Tree (Musa Paradisiaca), which is a native of the East Indies and other parts of the Asiatic Continent, furnishes the inhabitants with a species of bread. The fruit of the plantain-tree is about a foot long, and from an inch and a half to two inches in diameter. It is at first green, but when ripe of a pale yellow. It has a tough skin, and within is a soft pulp of a sweet flavour. The fruit is generally cut before it is ripe; the green skin is peeled off, and the heart is roasted in a clear coal fire for a few minutes, and frequently turned; it is then scraped and served up as bread. This tree is cultivated on an extensive scale in Jamaica. Without 46this fruit, Dr. Wright says, the Islands would be scarcely inhabitable, as no species of provisions could supply its place. Even flour and bread itself would be less agreeable to the labouring Negro.

Banana Bread.

The fruit of the Banana Tree (Musa Sapientum), differs from the preceding, being shorter, straighter, and rounder. It is about four or five inches long, of the shape of a cucumber, and of a highly grateful flavour. Bananas grow in bunches that weigh twelve pounds and upwards. This fruit yields a softer pulp than the plantain-tree, and of a more luscious taste. It is never eaten green, but when ripe is a very pleasant food, either raw or fried in 47slices like fritters. It is relished by all ranks of people in the West Indies. When the natives of the West Indies undertake a voyage, they take the ripe fruit of the banana and make provisions of the paste; and, having squeezed it through a sieve, form the mass into loaves, which are dried in the sun or baked on hot ashes, after being previously wrapped up in leaves.

Bread of Dried Fish.

The Laplanders, who have no corn of their own, make a kind of bread of the inner soft bark of a pine tree, either mixed with the coarsest barley meal, or with dried fish beaten into powder. The bark is collected when the sap is rising, it is afterwards dried in the sun, or over a slow 48fire, and then mixed with the coarsest barley meal, or dried fish beaten into powder. The poorer people grind the chaff, and even some of the straw along with the barley.
Another kind of bread is made of dried fish and the root of the water dragon (Calla palustris), the root is taken up in the spring, before the leaves shoot out. It is dried, pounded, and boiled, till it becomes thick, like flummery, and after standing three or four days to lose its bitterness it is mixed with the powder of dried fish and the inner bark of the pine tree, and then made into a stiff paste, and baked over embers.

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